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Table 2 The participants’ approaches to studying

From: Approaches to studying predict academic performance in undergraduate occupational therapy students: a cross-cultural study

ASSIST category ASSIST subscales Country of study
Australia (n = 376) Hong Kong (n = 109) Norway (n = 160) Singapore (n = 67) Total sample (n = 712)
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
Deep approach to studying   55.90 (8.68) 57.56 (6.47) 57.55 (8.33) 57.70 (8.00) 56.68 (8.26)
Seeking meaning 13.35 (2.52) 14.56 (2.15) 14.71 (2.40) 14.69 (2.34) 13.96 (2.51)
Relating ideas 14.05 (2.99) 14.38 (2.00) 14.03 (2.81) 14.18 (2.89) 14.10 (2.81)
Use of evidence 14.15 (2.97) 14.53 (2.08) 14.26 (2.61) 14.94 (2.30) 14.31 (2.70)
Interest in ideas 14.35 (2.56) 14.06 (2.23) 14.54 (2.91) 13.90 (2.88) 14.30 (2.63)
Strategic approach to studying   74.72 (10.64) 70.42 (9.69) 71.13 (10.00) 70.78 (10.46) 72.91 (10.51)
Organised study 14.35 (3.06) 13.39 (2.53) 13.03 (2.90) 12.46 (2.97) 13.73 (3.02)
Time management 14.42 (3.38) 12.89 (3.57) 12.83 (3.04) 13.25 (3.64) 13.72 (3.44)
Alertness to assessment demands 15.23 (2.51) 14.44 (2.50) 15.04 (2.71) 14.34 (2.45) 14.98 (2.57)
Achieving 14.85 (2.71) 14.35 (2.44) 14.34 (2.68) 15.42 (2.43) 14.71 (2.65)
Monitoring effectiveness 15.86 (2.41) 15.14 (2.00) 15.97 (2.33) 15.30 (2.08) 15.72 (2.32)
Surface approach to studying   48.39 (7.61) 52.49 (9.00) 48.02 (8.74) 49.72 (8.78) 49.08 (8.32)
Lack of purpose 8.42 (3.27) 11.41 (3.47) 8.85 (3.07) 8.49 (3.65) 8.98 (3.46)
Unrelated memorizing 11.84 (2.52) 12.59 (2.68) 11.67 (2.85) 11.96 (2.50) 11.93 (2.63)
Syllabus-bound 13.81 (2.68) 13.95 (2.84) 13.53 (2.91) 14.25 (2.79) 13.81 (2.77)
Fear of failure 14.32 (3.20) 14.54 (2.97) 14.34 (3.67) 15.01 (3.09) 14.43 (3.26)
  1. ASSIST Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, M Mean, SD Standard Deviation