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Table 2 Content Validity of Item Relevance for Part A of Questionnaire

From: The development and validation of the clinicians’ awareness towards cognitive errors (CATChES) in clinical decision making questionnaire tool

Item N A PC I-CVI   Evaluation of
Item no. 1
“Cognitive errors in general have important impact towards clinical decision making in emergency medicine”
9 9 0.00195 1 1 Excellent
Item no. 2
“Being aware of cognitive errors help me to be more careful in my clinical decisions”
9 9 0.00195 1 1 Excellent
Item no. 3
“Authority gradient discourage critical thinking and thus increase the vulnerability to commit cognitive errors”
9 8 0.01757 0.89 0.89 Excellent
Item no. 4
“Something, rather than nothing, can be done to minimize the risk of falling into these errors”
9 9 0.01757 1 1 Excellent
Item no. 5
“The understanding of cognitive errors and its impact on clinical decision making and patient safety should be made a component in emergency medicine curriculum in postgraduate training”
9 9 0.00195 1 1 Excellent
Item no. 6
“The understanding of cognitive errors and its impact on clinical decision making and patient safety should be taught at undergraduate level”
9 9 0.00195 1 1 Excellent
  1. Pc is the probability of chance of occurrence. The formula for Pc is: N!/[A!*(N-A)!]*0.5N where N the number of judges, A the number agreeing on good relevance. I-CVI is A/N
  2. The formula for modified kappa statistic () = (I-CVI – Pc)/(1 – Pc), where Pc represents probability of a chance occurrence (Polit et al. [16])
  3. Evaluation criteria for modified kappa (): = fair (0.40–0.59), = good (0.60–0.74) and = excellent (>0.74)
  4. I-CVI should be 0.85 and above (Lynn 1986) to establish validity with a p < 0.05