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Table 1 Preliminary list of items to evaluate the attitude of clinicians toward cognitive errors in clinical decision making

From: The development and validation of the clinicians’ awareness towards cognitive errors (CATChES) in clinical decision making questionnaire tool

Item Rationale of this item
Item no. 1 “Cognitive errors in general have important impact towards clinical decision making in emergency medicine” This item is aimed to evaluate whether the clinician has any awareness towards the impact of cognitive errors in clinical decision making. Is the clinician in precontemplation stage or contemplation stage?
Item no. 2 “Being aware of cognitive errors help me to be more careful in my clinical decisions” This item is aimed to evaluate whether the clinician believe that realize that by just being aware of these cognitive errors would improve the quality of his clinical decisions.
Item no. 3 “Authority gradient discourage critical thinking and thus increase the vulnerability to commit cognitive errors” Authority gradient is defined as the gradient that exists between two individuals of different professional status, experience, or expertise that contributes to difficulty in exchanging information (Cosby and Croskerry, 2004). This item is aimed to assess the clinician’s perception on whether he or she believes that authority gradient discourages critical thinking on cognitive errors toward clinical decision
Item no. 4 “Something, rather than nothing, can be done to minimize the risk of falling into these errors” To assess the motivation of the clinician towards change by minimizing the impact of cognitive errors in clinical decision making
Item no. 5 “The understanding of cognitive errors and its impact on clinical decision making and patient safety should be made a component in emergency medicine curriculum in postgraduate training” To assess the motivation of the clinician towards change by minimizing the impact of cognitive errors in clinical decision making
Item no. 6 “The understanding of cognitive errors and its impact on clinical decision making and patient safety should be taught at undergraduate level” To assess the motivation of the clinician towards change by minimizing the impact of cognitive errors in clinical decision making