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Table 2 Correlations between the scores contributing to the variables personal resources, perceived stress, and emotional distress

From: Perceived stress in first year medical students - associations with personal resources and emotional distress

Variables Operatio-nalisation BRCS sum SWOP Self-efficacy SWOP Optimism SWOP Pessimism PSQ-20 Joy PSQ-20 Worries PSQ-20 Tension PSQ-20 Demands PHQ-2 Depression GAD-2 Anxiety PHQ-4 (sum) PSQ-20 (sum)
Personal resources Resilient coping (BRCS) 1.00 .31a .27b –.15b .24b –.16b –.12a –.10 –.14b –.14b –.15b –.18b
Self-efficacy (SWOP)   1.00 .36b –.27b .39b –.38b –.24b –.16b –.26b –.31b –.32b –.36b
Optimism (SWOP)    1.00 –.29b .58b –.44b –.40b –.20b –.38b –.40b –.44b –.48b
Pessimism (SWOP)     1.00 –.28b .23b .20b 0.05 .23b .21b .25b .24b
Joy (PSQ-20)      1.00 –.56b –.54b –.26b –.55b –.51b –.60b –.75b
Perceived stress Worries (PSQ-20)       1.00 .61b .43b .50b .60b .63b .81b
Tension (PSQ-20)        1.00 .58b .42b .48b .51b .86b
Demands (PSQ-20)         1.00 .21b .26b .26b .73b
Emotional distress Depression (PHQ-2)          1.00 .53b .86b .51b
Anxiety (GAD-2)           1.00 .87b .57b
  PHQ-4 (sum)            1.00 .62b
PSQ-20 (sum)             1.00
  1. aCorrelation is statistically significant on a .05 level (two-sided)
  2. bCorrelation is statistically significant on a .01 level (two-sided)