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Table 4 ER strategies used by medical students following Gross taxonomy

From: (How) do medical students regulate their emotions?


Situation modification

Attention Deployment

Cognitive change

Response Modulation

Shock, bewilderment, surprise

Shame, embarrassment

Sadness, pity


Anxiety, stress, tension

Inaction (doing/saying nothing)

Trying to comfort the patient

Challenging/trying to change the situation

Focusing on a task


Reappraisal: Putting emphasis in clinical competencies of doctor

Reappraisal: Justifying doctor’s behavior

Suppression of emotions

Discussing with peers