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Table 1 Factor categories and loadings* (N = 7110)

From: Measuring stress in medical education: validation of the Korean version of the higher education stress inventory with medical students

Factors and Items (Total Cronbach’s α = .78) Factor loading
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Low Commitment (4items); α = .78; M(SD) = 1.99(0.51)
 17. Not proud of profession .783 .132 .178 .083 .029 -.008 .188
 10. Not satisfied with choice of career .757 .096 .220 .160 .071 .076 .162
 6. Personal development not stimulated through studies .599 .085 .322 .050 .121 .106 .177
 26. Sense of education not giving adequate preparation for profession .594 .108 .164 -.008 .042 -.047 .217
2. Financial Concerns (3items); α = .77; M(SD) = 2.15(0.71)
 12. Worries over financing during education .069 .777 .054 .167 .209 .113 .261
 28. Worries over future economy (debts from studies) .152 .770 .034 .207 .166 .119 .341
 23. Worries about housing .119 .652 -.026 .144 .148 .057 .302
3. Teacher-Student Relationship (4items); α = .69; M(SD) = 2.73(0.52)
 8. Lack of encouragement from teachers .189 .013 .723 .106 .122 .189 .095
 2 Lack of respectful treatment from teacher .313 .090 .655 .117 .186 .213 .255
 19. Lacking opportunities for influencing studies or curriculum .073 -.010 .573 .126 .150 .238 .090
 33. Lack of feedback from teachers .230 .009 .462 .017 .134 .096 .158
4. Worries about Future (2items); α = .82; M(SD) = 2.96(0.72)
 14. Worries over workload in the future .094 .204 .131 .852 .259 .329 .262
 20. Worries over stress in future profession .101 .201 .131 .810 .285 .369 .339
5. Non-supportive Climate (3items); α = .65; M(SD) = 2.74(0.60)
 11. Cold and impersonal attitude enhanced by education .049 .153 .168 .223 .733 .326 .335
 9. Competitive attitude among students .016 .126 .136 .188 .627 .278 .267
 4. Anonymity among students .131 .200 .150 .209 .496 .209 .289
6. Workload(2items); α = .76; M(SD) = 3.08(0.63)
 30. Literature too difficult and extensive .032 .101 .237 .355 .332 .860 .261
 31. Pace of studies too high .022 .101 .247 .289 .349 .711 .267
7. Dissatisfaction with educational activities (4items); α = .53; M(SD) = 2.49(0.46)
 32. Must attend situation that are ethically offending .167 .216 .095 .103 .203 .110 .563
 29. Too much student-controlled group-activities, resulting in unclear curriculum .158 .255 .175 .220 .332 .347 .485
 16. Unclear role and function as student .028 .144 .120 .291 .226 .205 .418
 25. Perceiving many future colleagues as dissatisfied or dejected in their profession .150 .242 .121 .307 .273 .214 .414
Eigenvalue 3.388 1.964 1.591 1.023 0.847 0.807 0.452
of variance % 15.399 8.927 7.232 4.650 3.850 3.667 2.055
Cumulative % 15.399 24.326 31.558 36.208 40.057 43.724 45.780
  1. Note. Boldface indicates highest factor loadings
  2. *Principal axis analysis with promax rotation with Kaiser Normalization, rotation converged in 6 iterations