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Table 1 Diagnostic knowledge dimensions according to Schmidmaier [7], van Gog [9], Krathwohl [10]

From: Knowledge is not enough to solve the problems – The role of diagnostic knowledge in clinical reasoning activities

Knowledge dimension Definition Examples of knowledge
Conceptual Knowledge
- what-
The basic elements one must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it. Knowledge of terminology, specific details, and elements.
Strategic Knowledge
- how -
How to execute something; methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques and methods. Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms, subject-specific techniques and methods, and criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures. Knowledge about problem solving
Conditional Knowledge
- why -
The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together. Knowledge of classifications and categories, principles and generalizations, theories, models, and structures. Knowledge about the rationale behind.
Metacognitive Knowledge
- selfcognition-
How to think about thinking; knowledge about cognitive tasks, and self-knowledge Knowledge about cognition in general as well as awareness of one’s own knowledge. Knowledge about one’s own cognition