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Table 4 Raw means pre and post intervention values and p-values for dexterity measures

From: A randomised controlled trial of sensory awareness training and additional motor practice for learning scalpel skills in podiatry students

Task Outcomes Means (SD) F value P-value (Grp x Time)
Control (n = 14) Sensory (n = 15) Motor (n = 15)
Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Grip-Lift task Preload duration (ms)
 Dominant 176.22 (180.15) 123.37 (42.56) 98.08 (35.21) 98.58 (36.40) 157.66 (228.74) 129.13 (62.24) 0.12 0.89
 Non-dominant 181.21 (137.66) 120.00 (65.84) 72.00 (48.82) 88.44 (40.14) 90.71 (53.36) 131.20 (79.88) 3.53 0.04*
Maximum grip force (N)
 Dominant 5.07 (1.99) 4.57 (1.79) 6.52 (2.89) 6.55 (2.81) 7.22 (4.73) 7.13 (3.55) 0.19 0.83
 Non-dominant 6.18 (2.57) 5.34 (2.10) 6.80 (2.67) 7.71 (6.11) 7.67 (4.27) 7.59 (3.13) 0.67 0.52
Maximum correlation (ρ)
 Dominant 0.77 (0.11) 0.81 (0.06) 0.77 (0.07) 0.78 (0.06) 0.78 (0.07) 0.75 (0.10) 0.35 0.71
 Non-dominant 0.77 (0.07) 0.78 (0.07) 0.76 (0.07) 0.77 (0.07) 0.78 (0.06) 0.77 (0.07) 0.47 0.63
Average Grip (N)
 Dominant 4.48 (1.75) 3.69 (1.27) 5.47 (3.11) 5.16 (3.14) 6.10 (3.81) 5.63 (2.68) 0.40 0.68
 Non-dominant 4.49 (1.92) 3.97 (1.55) 5.23 (2.07) 5.77 (5.54) 5.30 (2.46) 6.00 (2.73) 0.55 0.58
SD Grip
 Dominant 0.13 (0.07) 0.10 (0.06) 0.18 (0.13) 0.16 (0.17) 0.17 (0.11) 0.14 (0.12) 0.45 0.64
 Non-dominant 0.16 (0.07) 0.13 (0.09) 0.16 (0.07) 0.18 (0.11) 0.18 (0.08) 0.15 (0.08) 2.11 0.13
Hold Ratio
 Dominant 1.70 (0.76) 1.51 (0.52) 1.90 (0.83) 2.09 (1.28) 2.15 (1.36) 2.29 (1.08) 0.46 0.64
 Non-dominant 1.83 (0.79) 1.62 (0.63) 2.12 (0.84) 2.37 (2.38) 2.17 (1.04) 2.42 (1.09) 0.39 0.68
Lift Duration (ms)
 Dominanta 277.78 (160.24) 309.74 (129.72) 299.67 (96.32) 290.01 (86.93) 235.11 (66.37) 253.43 (86.31) 0.41 0.66
 Non-dominant 330.74 (186.32) 359.03 (150.55) 252.93 (99.38) 295.65 (123.32) 253.56 (99.23) 255.26 (102.75) 0.42 0.66
Purdue Pegboard No. of pegs
 Dominant 14.57 (1.55) 15.21 (1.76) 15.20 (1.78) 15.07 (1.90) 15.20 (1.93) 16.13 (1.41) 1.55 0.22
 Non-Dominant 14.00 (2.04) 14.21 (1.53) 13.73 (2.25) 14.57 (1.60) 14.13 (2.07) 14.67 (1.76) 0.31 0.73
Grooved Pegboard Test Time to complete
 Dominant 56.87 (7.92) 55.47 (7.66) 58.14 (11.03) 55.07 (6.82) 56.02 (7.84) 53.59 (6.36) 0.18 0.83
 Non-Dominant 62.37 (6.07) 60.77 (8.34) 61.31 (7.78) 59.09 (5.23) 62.40 (13.05) 61.59 (11.28) 0.26 0.77
  1. aModel includes ‘history of computer gaming’ variable as a random effect
  2. *p ≤ 0.05
  3. p-values calculated using linear mixed model analysis