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Table 2 Steps to develop summative assessment

From: Analyses of inter-rater reliability between professionals, medical students and trained school children as assessors of basic life support skills

Formative assessment Steps to develop summative assessment Summative assessment
  Steps to reduce construct underrepresentation Steps to reduce construct irrelevant variance  
Initial items Outcome relevant? Item part of other item scoring Likley to be assessed reliably? Item only testing knowledge and skills? Relevant items Specified dimension of performance
Speaks to the victim and shakes his shoulders Yes No Yes Yes speaks to the victim and shakes his shoulders
Calls for help Yes No Yes No  
Checks if the victim is breathing normally Yes No Yes Yes checks if the victim is breathing normally opens airway and comes close
Calls or sends to call 112 Yes No Yes Yes Calls or sends to call 112
Starts chest-compression as soon as possible Yes No Yes Yes Starts chest-compression as soon as possible Within the first 30 s
Has the right compression point Yes No Yes Yes, with limitations Has the right compression point Center of the chest
Has the right position Yes Yes (compr.depth)     
Has the right compression depth Yes No Yes Yes Has the right compression depth 5–6 cm depth, Mini-Anne clicking min. 4 of 5 compr.
Releases all the pressure from the chest Yes Yes (compr.depth)     
Compresses with a frequency of 100–120_1 Yes No Yes Yes Compresses with a frequency of 100–120_1 Tolerance-rate: 95–125_1
Ratio of chest-compression/breaths 30: 2 Questionable      
Gives effective breaths to rise the chest Questionable      
Sends to go for AED and switches on AED Yes No Yes No   
Pads are attached correctly Yes No Yes No   
Ensures continuous effective chest-compr Yes No Yes Yes Ensures continuous effective chest-compr. No interruption of more than 10 s