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Table 1 Steps to develop formative assessment

From: Analyses of inter-rater reliability between professionals, medical students and trained school children as assessors of basic life support skills

Instructions for BLS according to “einlebenretten” ERC-instructions for effective BLS including AED Formative assessment Specified dimension of performance
Ask the victim loudly: “can you hear me?” Unresponsive? Speaks to the victim and shakes his shoulders  
Shake his shoulders: no reaction? Call for help Calls for help  
Pay attention to breathing: No breathing or no normal breathing Open airway: Not breathing normally? Checks if the victim is breathing normally Opens airway and comes close
Call 112 or send to call 112 Call 112 Calls or sends to call 112  
Compress hard and fast 30 chest compressions   
Start immediately Start chest compression Starts chest-compression as soon as possible Within the first 30 s
Place the heel of one hand in the center of the chest, place the heel of the other hand on top Place the heel of one hand in the center of the chest, place the heel of the other hand on top Has the right compression point Center of the chest
Interlock your fingers, keep your arms straight, position vertically above the compression point Interlock your fingers, keep your arms straight, position vertically above the victims chest Has the right position  
Press the sternum 5–6 cm down Press down on the sternum at least 5 cm (but not exceeding 6 cm) Has the right compression depth 5-6 cm depth, Mini-Anne clicking min. 4 of 5 compr.
Allow full chest recoil Releases all the pressure from the chest
Compress 100–120 times per minute Repeat at a rate of at least 100 min¯1 (but not exceeding 120 min¯1) Compresses with a frequency of 100–120¯1 Tolerance-rate: 95–125¯1
Trained rescuers should perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation in the ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths 2 rescue breaths 30 chest compressions ratio of chest-compression/breaths 30: 2  
Open the airway Blow steadily to rise the chest Gives effective breaths to rise the chest
Send someone for help and to find and bring an AED; switch on the AED Sends to go for AED and switches on AED
Bare chest Attach the electrode pads on the victim’s bare chest Pads are attached correctly  
Don’t stop until help arrives Minimise interruptions in chest compression Ensures continuous effective chest-compressions No interruption of more than 10 s