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Table 3 Impact of role-playing on mastery of key concepts in genetic counseling (N = 200)

From: Role-playing is an effective instructional strategy for genetic counseling training: an investigation and comparative study

No. Key concepts of genetic counseling Average rank in Change (95 % CI) Paired t test
P value
Pre-test Post-test
1 Congenital disease 2.05 ± 0.605 2.90 ± 0.308 -0.85 (-1.12 -0.58) <0.0001
2 Familial disease 2.10 ± 0.6411 2.95 ± 0.224 -0.85 (-1.12 -0.58) < 0.0001
3 Genetic disease 2.15 ± 0.587 3.00 ± 0.000 -0.85 (-1.12 -0.58) < 0.0001
4 Genetic maker 0.30 ± 0.470 2.85 ± 0.366 -2.55 (-2.83 -2.27) < 0.0001
5 Epigenetic 0.70 ± 0.979 2.85 ± 0.366 -2.15 (-2.68 -1.62) < 0.0001
6 Mitosis 2.85 ± 0.366 3.00 ± 0.000 -0.15 (-0.32 0.02) 0.0828 (NS)
7 Meiosis 2.85 ± 0.366 3.00 ± 0.000 -0.15 (-0.32 0.02) 0.0828 (NS)
8 Dynamic mutation 0.50 ± 0.827 2.75 ± 0.444 -2.25 (-2.62 -1.88) < 0.0001
9 Euchromatin 2.25 ± 0.910 2.95 ± 0.224 -0.70 (-1.13 -0.27) 0.0031
10 Heterochromatin 1.85 ± 0.933 2.85 ± 0.366 -1.00 (-1.48 -0.52) 0.0003
11 Sex chromatin 2.35 ± 0.875 2.95 ± 0.224 -0.60 (-0.95 -0.25) 0.0021
12 Karyotype 0.40 ± 0.503 2.85 ± 0.366 -2.45 (-2.73 -2.17) < 0.0001
13 Pedigree 0.50 ± 0.688 2.95 ± 0.224 -2.45 (-2.77 -2.13) < 0.0001
14 Trisomy 21 syndrome 2.10 ± 0.718 3.00 ± 0.000 -0.90 (-1.24 -0.56) < 0.0001
15 Trisomy 18 syndrome 0.30 ± 0.571 2.65 ± 0.489 -2.35 (-2.73 -1.97) < 0.0001
16 Trisomy 13 syndrome 0.25 ± 0.444 2.60 ± 0.503 -2.35 (-2.66 -2.04) < 0.0001
17 Turner syndrome 0.80 ± 0.894 2.95 ± 0.224 -2.15 (-2.56 -1.74) < 0.0001
18 Klinefelter syndrome 0.05 ± 0.224 2.75 ± 0.444 -2.70 (-2.97 -2.43) < 0.0001
19 Huntington chorea 1.65 ± 0.875 2.60 ± 0.754 -0.95 (-1.53 -0.37) 0.0027
20 Albinism type I 2.00 ± 0.562 2.75 ± 0.444 -0.75 (-1.05 -0.45) < 0.0001
21 Vitamin D resistant rickets 1.95 ± 0.605 2.55 ± 0.510 -0.60 (-0.98 -0.22) 0.0040
22 Duchenne muscular dystrophy 0.80 ± 0.696 2.20 ± 0.696 -1.40 (-1.75 -1.05) < 0.0001
23 Heterogeneity 0.25 ± 0.444 2.90 ± 0.308 -2.65 (-2.88 -2.42) < 0.0001
24 Genetic anticipation 0.15 ± 0.366 2.90 ± 0.308 -2.75 (-2.96 -2.54) < 0.0001
25 Genetic imprinting 0.15 ± 0.366 2.85 ± 0.366 -2.70 (-2.97 -2.43) < 0.0001
26 Delayed dominance 0.05 ± 0.224 3.00 ± 0.000 -2.95 (-3.05 -2.85) < 0.0001
27 Irregular dominance 0.05 ± 0.224 2.90 ± 0.308 -2.85 (-3.02 -2.68) < 0.0001
28 Incomplete dominance 0.75 ± 0.639 2.95 ± 0.224 -2.20 (-2.53 -1.87) < 0.0001
29 Gene pleiotropy 0.50 ± 0.688 2.80 ± 0.523 -2.30 (-2.64 -1.96) < 0.0001
30 Quantitative trait 0.05 ± 0.224 3.00 ± 0.000 -2.95 (-3.05 -2.85) < 0.0001
31 Qualitative trait 0.05 ± 0.224 3.00 ± 0.000 -2.95 (-3.05 -2.85) < 0.0001
32 Genetic susceptibility 0.20 ± 0.410 3.00 ± 0.000 -2.80 (-2.99 -2.61) < 0.0001
33 Genetic liability 0.05 ± 0.224 3.00 ± 0.000 -2.95 (-3.05 -2.85) < 0.0001
34 Coefficient of relationship 0.35 ± 0.489 3.00 ± 0.000 -2.65 (-2.88 -2.42) < 0.0001
35 Inbreeding coefficient 0.35 ± 0.489 2.95 ± 0.224 -2.60 (-2.84 -2.36) < 0.0001
36 Law of genetic equilibrium 0.40 ± 0.598 3.00 ± 0.000 -2.60 (-2.88 -2.32) < 0.0001
37 Mitochondrial disease 1.25 ± 0.851 2.60 ± 0.503 -1.35 (-1.73 -0.97) < 0.0001
38 Genetic hypothesis of tumorigenesis 0.60 ± 0.598 2.85 ± 0.366 -2.25 (-2.55 -1.95) < 0.0001
39 Gene therapy 1.15 ± 0.489 2.80 ± 0.410 -1.65 (-2.00 -1.30) < 0.0001
40 Genetic diagnosis 1.25 ± 0.550 2.85 ± 0.366 -1.60 (-1.88 -1.32) < 0.0001
41 Genetic counseling 1.00 ± 0.725 2.80 ± 0.410 -1.80 (-2.19 -1.41) < 0.0001
42 Genetic screening 0.80 ± 0.768 2.55 ± 0.510 -1.75 (-2.20 -1.30) < 0.0001
  1. NS Not Significant (P > 0.05)