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Table 2 Procedural steps correctly performed in pre-test and post-test observation

From: Lumbar puncture simulation in pediatric residency training: improving procedural competence and decreasing anxiety

Procedural stepsa Pre-test Post-test
1. Consent obtained 37.5 % 68.8 %
2. Washed hands 87.5 % 87.5 %
3. Calls “time out” 0 % 31.3 %
4. Positions patient 81.3 % 100 %
5. Anatomical location 81.3 % 87.5 %
6. Sterile gloves on 93.8 % 93.8 %
7. Equipment set up 37.5 % 75 %
8. Clean skin 93.8 % 93.8 %
9. Drape patient 75 % 93.8 %
10. Lidocaine drawn up 6.3 % 87.5 %
11. Lidocaine injected 6.3 % 87.5 %
12. Needle orientation 75 % 87.5 %
13. Needle bevel correct 18.8 % 75 %
14. Needle slowly advanced 68.8 % 87.5 %
15. Opening pressure 37.5 % 62.5 %
16. Obtains and collects fluid 68.8 % 75 %
17. Re-inserts stylet at end 62.5 % 75 %
18. Dressing applied 86.7 % 100 %
19. Post-op orders written 18.8 % 31.3 %
20. Correct labs ordered 75 % 81.3 %
21. Sterile technique maintained 87.5 % 68.8 %
Overall average: 58 % 80 %
  1. Procedural steps taken (i.e. % of Pediatric Residents (N = 16) correctly performing maneuver) on 21-item score on pre-test and post-test observation. aThis checklist of procedural steps has been previously by Barsuk et al. [6]