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Table 4 Effect sizes by level of fidelity, to evaluation levels

From: Effectiveness of simulation-based nursing education depending on fidelity: a meta-analysis

Outcomes Type of fidelity k −95 % CI ES +95 % CI SE
  HFS 77 0.67 0.86 1.05 0.09
MFS 5 0.18 1.03 1.88 0.43
  LFS 13 0.18 0.35 0.52 0.86
  Hybrid 5 0.16 0.34 0.52 0.09
  SP 29 0.61 0.86 1.11 0.12
Reaction HFS 5 0.41 0.64 0.87 0.11
  LFS 4 0.01 0.27 0.54 0.13
Cognitive HFS 16 0.36 0.50 0.64 0.11
  MFS 1 −0.55 0.06 0.68 0.31
  LFS 1 −0.11 0.47 1.05 0.29
  SP 7 0.12 0.32 0.52 0.10
Affective HFS 21 0.54 0.80 1.07 0.13
  MFS 1 −0.61 0.01 0.62 0.31
  LFS 4 0.06 0.39 0.71 0.16
  Hybrid 2 −0.03 0.35 0.75 0.20
  SP 9 0.51 0.73 0.95 0.11
Psychomotor HFS 28 0.77 1.03 1.30 0.13
  MFS 3 1.41 1.76 2.11 0.17
  LFS 4 −0.05 0.38 0.82 0.22
  Hybrid 1 0.32 0.62 0.92 0.15
  SP 10 0.64 1.27 1.89 0.31
  1. k number of effect size, ES effect size, SE standard error