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Table 2 Keywords and data for debriefing as algorithm

From: Debriefing practices in interprofessional simulation with students: a sociomaterial perspective

Keywords Field note/quote
- Pre-structured Field note 1
The students, dressed in white clinical clothes, drop in after the simulation, sit down around the table and engage in small talk with each other. The instructor enters, dressed in everyday clothes, and all the students turn their attention towards him. The instructor starts: “So we are going to debrief now. We think it is a good idea that you do not discuss the scenario with each other before hand because we believe that we should do it together here in the debriefing. We use a certain model for debriefing. Sometimes when you have done or experienced something you have a tendency to be self-critical and talk about what you could have done differently. We believe that it’s not the best way to analyse this./…/ we usually say that we have three steps. First we talk about what happened, completely factual. Because it is not certain that we all saw what happened [during the scenario] and then we analyse. We do that by first talking about what we did well. We do that so we become aware what it is that I or we are good at, so we can continue doing that and then we can continue to maybe talk about what we could have done differently. And lastly, we also discuss how we can use this scenario, and we will also look a little at a video sequence. But before we get going I want to start by asking how you are feeling at the moment? Johan?” Johan, a nursing student, clears his throat and answers: “Confused… “(Site 2)
- Systematic procedure
- Protocol steered
- Instructor centred
- Close inquiry approach
- Reinforce good professional performance
- Strengthening team performance
Field note 2
The group has just summarised the scenario and the instructor says: “OK, now let’s start by talking about what you did well. If we begin with you, who were in the room first, I’m thinking about Thomas and Johanna.” Thomas, a nursing student, starts and says: “Well I think that it would be easier to start at the other end. I came in and well…” The instructor interrupts and asks “At the other end? What do you mean by that?”. Thomas answers “Well, there are things that I could have done differently from the start, but you do not want us to start there”. The instructor nods and says: “No I think that you should raise things that you think were good”. Thomas looks down at the table, sighs and after a while he says: “No I cannot think of anything right now since I feel that there was a lot that I could have done differently”. One of the other nursing students raises her voice and says: “But I think that you gave feedback well and/…/ and the phone call you made was good, if you compared it with the call that I did before.” (Site 2)
Field note 3
The students and the instructor have been discussing what the team did well for a while and then the instructor says: “I thought that we would look at a short film sequence now when we have it [refers to the video equipment in the room] all set up. I want you to look at, well, we will show something that we think that you did well, as you know. I want you to look at the structure here, that you think works well.” [a film sequence of 1.41 min is shown] The instructor says: “So what do you say? Did you think of something good that you saw there?” [there is a giggle in the room, then quiet] One of the acting nurse students “Well as we said before, it was very good that Niklas [medical student] made summaries, like we have done this, this and this, and now we are here so that everybody knows.” The instructor nods “Yes it was confident, clear and structured A, B, C, D and E. Did you think about it during the scenario?” One of the nurse students answers: “Yes a little, it felt like we knew what we were doing and maybe because of that it felt very relaxed.” (Site 2)