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Table 3 Predictors of mastery and performance orientation of undergraduate health profession students: fixed effects of the multivariate multilevel growth model

From: Goal orientations of health profession students throughout the undergraduate program: a multilevel study

  Mastery Performance
  B/SE (β) B/SE (β)
Intercept 5.39** 4.47**
Time -0.21/0.04 (-0.42)** -0.19/0.05 (-0.24)**
Time squared 0.02/< 0.01 (0.21)** 0.02/< 0.01 (0.13)**
Between students   
 Gender 0.20/0.04 (0.10)** ns
 High school GPA -0.13/0.04 (-0.10)** 0.15/0.06 (0.07)**
 Pharmaceutical Sciencesa ns 0.29/0.08 (0.09)**
 Veterinary Sciencesa 0.19/0.04 (0.10)** ns
 Self-Efficacy 0.27/0.02 (0.27)** 0.32/0.03 (0.20)**
 Study GPA 0.25/0.06 (0.16)** 0.58/0.09 (0.23)**
 Time* Study GPA 0.05/0.02 (0.70)** 0.07/0.02 (0.62)**
Within students   
 Self-Efficacy_dev 0.23/0.02 (0.11)** 0.21/0.03 (0.06)**
 Study GPA_dev ns ns
Δχ2 (deviance) -6472.01
  1. Note. B refers to unstandardized effects, SE refers to the standard errors of these effects, and β refers to the standardized effect. Between student variance for mastery and performance was 0.576** and 1.352**. Within student variance was 0.259** and 0.458**
  2. * p < .05; ** p < .01 (all tested one-sided)
  3. a reference group is Medical Sciences