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Table 2 Description of EbM training programs

From: Effectiveness of training in evidence-based medicine skills for healthcare professionals: a systematic review

Reference Duration Content Material used Method of delivery
Bennet et al. 13-week period (two hours per week) Workshop: ask a clinical question; find evidence; critically appraise evidence; integrate the evidence with clinical expertise, patients values and circumstances
Appraisal and implementation of clinical practice guidelines
Communicating evidence to patients
Clinical examples and research articles Didactic lectures, tutorial and workshop formats
Database searching
Presentation of an appraisal of a clinically relevant topic
Role play of communicating research evidence to the patient
Kim et al. 6 8-h educational sessions Theory of experimental learning, mentorship and resources for nurse leader and staff nurse Not reported Implementation of a clinical practice project in home institution
Fellowship program culminates in a graduation ceremony and an EbM conference
Lizarondo et al. 6-monthly journal club sessions (each lasting an hour) Workshop: asking a question, developing a search strategy, critical appraisal, evidence implementation and evaluation
Discussion of methodological quality, key findings and issues pertaining to the implementation in clinical practice of one study
Articles from scientific journals, self-help kits on statistics Discussion of one study ending with the resolution of a clinical problem and how to utilize evidence in making clinical decisions and evaluating its effects
McCluskey et al. 3 2-day workshops during one month Lectures, practical sessions and discussion on:
Process of evidence-based practice; asking a focused clinical question; searching electronic databases; critical appraisal of qualitative and quantitative research; interpreting statistics in randomized controlled trials; overcoming barriers when making the change to evidence-based practice
Not reported Workshops with the assistance of a health librarian.
Participants developed a critically appraised topic (CAT)
Participants wrote a clinical question about the effectiveness of an occupational therapy intervention
CATs were presented at a conference and uploaded to a website
Email list to facilitate communication
Reminders and individual feedback about the assignment
Meyer et al. EbM courses over 1 to 3 days
2 courses of 8 lessons (lasting 45 min each), 2 courses of 16 lessons, and one course of 20 lessons.
7 content modules were obligatory and 5 were optional, depending on the length of the course.
Information on treatment benefit and safety provided through public media
Fallacies of observational research
Evidence necessary to draw conclusions about efficacy and safety of an intervention
Framing of data: presenting relative risk reduction to exaggerate reception of treatment benefits
Critical appraisal of a randomized controlled trial
Drafting a searchable question; introduction to databases
Accuracy and validity of diagnostic tests and techniques
Validity of patient information brochures on diabetes
Sections from two video-taped TV features showing expert discussion
Worksheet with key questions
Abstract and tables of the Nurses’ Health Study; English-German vocabulary list and critical appraisal sheet
PowerPoint slides displaying a fictitious observational study
PowerPoint slides displaying study flow, baseline data, and results of the Women’s Health Initiative study on prevention of cardiovascular disease through hormone replacement therapy
PowerPoint slides displaying an advertisement for Simvastatin
Worksheet comprising information from the 4S-study, 2x2 table sheets and pocket calculators
Misleading patient information sheet on hormone replacement therapy
Worksheet on balanced reporting of benefit, lack of benefit and adverse effects of interventions
German translation of the STOP-NIDDM study. Glossary and critical appraisal sheet
Worksheets comprising general information on biomedical databases and relevant Internet addresses
Worksheet on validity criteria for diagnostic tests
Consumer information on the accuracy and practicability of blood pressure devices
Abstract and tables of a validation study on a blood pressure self-measuring device. German patient or consumer information brochures on diabetes; German version of the DISCERN instrument
Observation and plenary discussion
Presentation, individual work or work and analysis in pairs
Computing relative and absolute risk, event rates etc. by 2x2 tables
Varnell et al. 8-week EbP educational program (2 h each week) History of EbP; asking clinical questions; conducting literature searches; research designs; evaluating qualitative and quantitative research; implementing EbP change; and evaluating change in practice Not reported Delivery by four university faculty members with expertise in EbP
Didactic presentations, group discussions, hands-on practice in writing clinical questions and conducting online literature searches
Group work evaluating sample qualitative and quantitative research articles
Yost et al. 5-day workshop (4 h in large group sessions, 18 h in small group sessions) Large group sessions related to EIDM (evidence informed decision making)
Small group sessions focused on searching for, accessing and critical appraisal of the evidence
Each small group conducted critical appraisal of therapy; intervention studies; systematic reviews; meta-analyses and practice guidelines
Background reading and studies used to practice critical appraisal techniques Large and small group sessions, individual study time and opportunities to work with a trained librarian
Participants received reading materials in advance of the worksh
Chen et al. 32-h course Literature search
Critical reading of articles
Guidelines on how to read and analyse articles Teachers: two experienced instructors who designed the course
Students practiced three report critiques and presented their critiques orally
Completing a reference list of a literature search written in APA format
Presenting a literature critique of current nursing journal article
Writing a literature article summary card that records the critical content and source of the article
Courey et al. 1 day workshop following weekly presentation of articles implemented into the one-semester course on Foundations of Nursing Access and evaluate professional nursing literature Not reported Lecture, discussion, hands-on activities, and collaborative learning
Access, evaluate, and utilize professional nursing journal articles
Presenting relevant literature to peers in clinical post-conference settings
Jalali-Nia et al. 1-day workshop following weekly 2-h meetings with a tutor and the main researcher over 12 weeks Developing a clinical question using the PICO format, searching for evidence, reading and critiquing nursing research, discussing articles, synthesizing the evidence, and developing a summary of findings Articles for discussion Intervention included four phases:
First phase: two tutors teaching the mentors regarding the principles of the evidence-based approach to education
Second phase: 1-day workshop for the intervention group provided by the primary researcher
Third phase: Two medical-surgical courses were taught
Fourth phase: 20 students were divided into four groups. Students met weekly for two hours
Each student group prepared a paper summarizing the search process, a specific evaluation of each study and its application to practice
Findings were presented and discussed in an oral presentation
Stevenson et al. 5 h of training Evidence-based principles including the use of opinion leaders
Aspects of EbP including low back pain management
Critical appraisal skills and literature searching skills
Not reported Presentation in a relaxed and open format
Learning strategies included: teaching, discussion, reflective thinking, active experimentation and peer group teaching
Levin et al. Intervention phase lasting 16 weeks
4-week period consisting of four 1-h classes, followed by an EbP mentor on 1 day a week for 2 h over a period of 12 weeks
Definition of EbP and rationale for use in clinical decision making
Developing focused, searchable clinical questions; finding the evidence
Basic concepts of a systematic review, specifically reading and critically appraising a meta-analysis
EbP toolkit which included narrative text on the content of the presentations
Environmental prompts (e.g. posters that encourage the nurses to use EbP)
Session delivered by experts in the field
EbP mentor met with nurses to facilitate their work and serve as an informal teacher of how to implement EbP concepts
Sessions were prescheduled for 1 and 1.5 h each week
Dizon et al. 1 day workshop with follow-up online support Workshop with following contents: introduction to EbM, hierarchy of evidence and study designs, drafting the clinical question using the PICO format, designing the search, critical appraisal of the evidence, answering the clinical question based from the evidence found EbM Checklist, online EbM support, printed materials Training program was modeled with fixed/constant and variable components
Fixed components: one day face-to-face training with lectures, practical sessions
Variable components: online EbM training package, EbM checklist to assist participants to apply the evidence in practice