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Table 2 Description of EbM training programs

From: Effectiveness of training in evidence-based medicine skills for healthcare professionals: a systematic review

Reference Duration Content Material used Method of delivery
Bennet et al. 13-week period (two hours per week) Workshop: ask a clinical question; find evidence; critically appraise evidence; integrate the evidence with clinical expertise, patients values and circumstances Appraisal and implementation of clinical practice guidelines Communicating evidence to patients Clinical examples and research articles Didactic lectures, tutorial and workshop formats Database searching Presentation of an appraisal of a clinically relevant topic Role play of communicating research evidence to the patient
Kim et al. 6 8-h educational sessions Theory of experimental learning, mentorship and resources for nurse leader and staff nurse Not reported Implementation of a clinical practice project in home institution Fellowship program culminates in a graduation ceremony and an EbM conference
Lizarondo et al. 6-monthly journal club sessions (each lasting an hour) Workshop: asking a question, developing a search strategy, critical appraisal, evidence implementation and evaluation Discussion of methodological quality, key findings and issues pertaining to the implementation in clinical practice of one study Articles from scientific journals, self-help kits on statistics Discussion of one study ending with the resolution of a clinical problem and how to utilize evidence in making clinical decisions and evaluating its effects
McCluskey et al. 3 2-day workshops during one month Lectures, practical sessions and discussion on: Process of evidence-based practice; asking a focused clinical question; searching electronic databases; critical appraisal of qualitative and quantitative research; interpreting statistics in randomized controlled trials; overcoming barriers when making the change to evidence-based practice Not reported Workshops with the assistance of a health librarian. Participants developed a critically appraised topic (CAT) Participants wrote a clinical question about the effectiveness of an occupational therapy intervention CATs were presented at a conference and uploaded to a website Email list to facilitate communication Reminders and individual feedback about the assignment
Meyer et al. EbM courses over 1 to 3 days 2 courses of 8 lessons (lasting 45 min each), 2 courses of 16 lessons, and one course of 20 lessons. 7 content modules were obligatory and 5 were optional, depending on the length of the course. Information on treatment benefit and safety provided through public media Fallacies of observational research Evidence necessary to draw conclusions about efficacy and safety of an intervention Framing of data: presenting relative risk reduction to exaggerate reception of treatment benefits Critical appraisal of a randomized controlled trial Drafting a searchable question; introduction to databases Accuracy and validity of diagnostic tests and techniques Validity of patient information brochures on diabetes Sections from two video-taped TV features showing expert discussion Worksheet with key questions Abstract and tables of the Nurses’ Health Study; English-German vocabulary list and critical appraisal sheet PowerPoint slides displaying a fictitious observational study PowerPoint slides displaying study flow, baseline data, and results of the Women’s Health Initiative study on prevention of cardiovascular disease through hormone replacement therapy PowerPoint slides displaying an advertisement for Simvastatin Worksheet comprising information from the 4S-study, 2x2 table sheets and pocket calculators Misleading patient information sheet on hormone replacement therapy Worksheet on balanced reporting of benefit, lack of benefit and adverse effects of interventions German translation of the STOP-NIDDM study. Glossary and critical appraisal sheet Worksheets comprising general information on biomedical databases and relevant Internet addresses Worksheet on validity criteria for diagnostic tests Consumer information on the accuracy and practicability of blood pressure devices Abstract and tables of a validation study on a blood pressure self-measuring device. German patient or consumer information brochures on diabetes; German version of the DISCERN instrument Observation and plenary discussion Presentation, individual work or work and analysis in pairs Computing relative and absolute risk, event rates etc. by 2x2 tables
Varnell et al. 8-week EbP educational program (2 h each week) History of EbP; asking clinical questions; conducting literature searches; research designs; evaluating qualitative and quantitative research; implementing EbP change; and evaluating change in practice Not reported Delivery by four university faculty members with expertise in EbP Didactic presentations, group discussions, hands-on practice in writing clinical questions and conducting online literature searches Group work evaluating sample qualitative and quantitative research articles
Yost et al. 5-day workshop (4 h in large group sessions, 18 h in small group sessions) Large group sessions related to EIDM (evidence informed decision making) Small group sessions focused on searching for, accessing and critical appraisal of the evidence Each small group conducted critical appraisal of therapy; intervention studies; systematic reviews; meta-analyses and practice guidelines Background reading and studies used to practice critical appraisal techniques Large and small group sessions, individual study time and opportunities to work with a trained librarian Participants received reading materials in advance of the worksh
Chen et al. 32-h course Literature search Critical reading of articles Guidelines on how to read and analyse articles Teachers: two experienced instructors who designed the course Students practiced three report critiques and presented their critiques orally Assignments: Completing a reference list of a literature search written in APA format Presenting a literature critique of current nursing journal article Writing a literature article summary card that records the critical content and source of the article
Courey et al. 1 day workshop following weekly presentation of articles implemented into the one-semester course on Foundations of Nursing Access and evaluate professional nursing literature Not reported Lecture, discussion, hands-on activities, and collaborative learning Access, evaluate, and utilize professional nursing journal articles Presenting relevant literature to peers in clinical post-conference settings
Jalali-Nia et al. 1-day workshop following weekly 2-h meetings with a tutor and the main researcher over 12 weeks Developing a clinical question using the PICO format, searching for evidence, reading and critiquing nursing research, discussing articles, synthesizing the evidence, and developing a summary of findings Articles for discussion Intervention included four phases: First phase: two tutors teaching the mentors regarding the principles of the evidence-based approach to education Second phase: 1-day workshop for the intervention group provided by the primary researcher Third phase: Two medical-surgical courses were taught Fourth phase: 20 students were divided into four groups. Students met weekly for two hours Each student group prepared a paper summarizing the search process, a specific evaluation of each study and its application to practice Findings were presented and discussed in an oral presentation
Stevenson et al. 5 h of training Evidence-based principles including the use of opinion leaders Aspects of EbP including low back pain management Critical appraisal skills and literature searching skills Not reported Presentation in a relaxed and open format Learning strategies included: teaching, discussion, reflective thinking, active experimentation and peer group teaching
Levin et al. Intervention phase lasting 16 weeks 4-week period consisting of four 1-h classes, followed by an EbP mentor on 1 day a week for 2 h over a period of 12 weeks Definition of EbP and rationale for use in clinical decision making Developing focused, searchable clinical questions; finding the evidence Basic concepts of a systematic review, specifically reading and critically appraising a meta-analysis EbP toolkit which included narrative text on the content of the presentations Environmental prompts (e.g. posters that encourage the nurses to use EbP) Session delivered by experts in the field EbP mentor met with nurses to facilitate their work and serve as an informal teacher of how to implement EbP concepts Sessions were prescheduled for 1 and 1.5 h each week
Dizon et al. 1 day workshop with follow-up online support Workshop with following contents: introduction to EbM, hierarchy of evidence and study designs, drafting the clinical question using the PICO format, designing the search, critical appraisal of the evidence, answering the clinical question based from the evidence found EbM Checklist, online EbM support, printed materials Training program was modeled with fixed/constant and variable components Fixed components: one day face-to-face training with lectures, practical sessions Variable components: online EbM training package, EbM checklist to assist participants to apply the evidence in practice