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Table 2 Descriptives (gender, age, motivation scores) and comparisons between groups using ANCOVA with age and gender as covariates

From: Motivation of medical students: selection by motivation or motivation by selection

  Female (%) Mean age ± SD Strength of motivation for medical school, Meana (SE) Autonomous Motivation, Meana (SE) Controlled Motivation, Meana (SE)
(min. score = 15, max. score = 75) (min. score = 7, max. score = 49) (min. score = 5, max. score = 35)
Hypothesis 1      
Selected students (n = 156) 71.8 % 21.33 ± 3.01 54.84 (0.66) 5.99 (0.05) 4.14 (0.07)
Non-selected students (n = 200) 70.5 % 21.01 ± 2.63 52.28 (0.58) 5.86 (0.05) 4.15 (0.06)
Test Value    F = 8.516** F = 3.470 (n.s.) F = 0.012 (n.s.)
Effect size (Cohen’s d)    d = 0.32 d = 0.19 d = 0.04
Hypothesis 2      
Recently selected students (n = 90) 77.8 % 19.80 ± 2.13 56.77 (0.88) 6.12 (0.07) 4.31 (0.09)
Non-(recently) selected students (n = 183) 68.8 % 21.61 ± 2.86 52.27 (0.50) 5.85 (0.04) 4.09 (0.05)
Test Value    F = 19.146** F = 11.032** F = 4.421*
Effect size (Cohen’s d)    d = 0.50 d = 0.48 d = 0.44
  1. Hypothesis 1: selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected (lottery and top GPA) students
  2. Hypothesis 2: recently selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than students who were selected longer ago and non-selected (lottery and top GPA) students
  3. Effect size values of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 are considered small, medium and large respectively
  4. SD standard deviation; SE standard error
  5. *p < .05
  6. **p < .01
  7. aAdjusted for covariates age and gender