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Table 2 Proportion of Correct Answers on the Delirium Knowledge Questionnaire in Healthcare Workers in the Pretest and Posttest Phase (n = 59)

From: The effect of an interactive delirium e-learning tool on healthcare workers’ delirium recognition, knowledge and strain in caring for delirious patients: a pilot pre-test/post-test study

Items Pretest phase (n = 59) Posttest phase (n = 59)
Items related to knowledge about the presentation, symptoms and outcomes of delirium, n correct (%)   
1. Fluctuation between orientation and disorientation is a typical feature of delirium 40 (67.8) 46 (78)
2. Symptoms of depression may mimic delirium 47 (79.7) 54 (91.5)
3. Patients never remember episodes of delirium 41 (69.5) 52 (88.1)
4. Delirium never lasts for more than a few hours 53 (89.8) 57 (96.6)
5. A patient who is lethargic and difficult to rouse does certainly not have a delirium 51 (86.4) 55 (93.2)
6. Patients with delirium are always physically and/or verbally aggressive 49 (83.1) 55 (93.2)
7. Patients with delirium have a higher mortality rate 35 (59.3) 50 (84.7)
8. Behavioral changes in the course of the day are typical of delirium 48 (81.4) 55 (93.2)
9. A patient with delirium is likely to be easily distracted and/or have difficulty following a conversation 53 (89.8) 58 (98.3)
10. Patients with delirium will often experience perceptual disturbances (e.g., visual and/or auditory hallucinations) 58 (98.3) 59 (100)
Items related to knowledge about causes and risk factors of delirium   
11. A patient admitted with pneumonia and having diabetes, visual and auditory disturbances has the same risk for delirium as a patient admitted with pneumonia without co-morbidities 31 (52.5) 44 (74.6)
12. The risk for delirium increases with age 47 (79.7) 51 (86.4)
13. A patient with impaired vision is at increased risk of delirium 36 (61.0) 55 (93.2)
14. The greater the number of medications a patient is taking, the greater their risk of delirium 31 (52.5) 41 (69.5)
15. A urinary catheter reduces the risk of delirium 49 (83.1) 49 (83.1)
16. Poor nutrition increases the risk of delirium 48 (81.4) 59 (100)
17. Dementia is an important risk factor for delirium 45 (76.3) 48 (81.4)
18. Diabetes is an important risk factor for delirium 37 (62.7) 21 (35.6)
19. Dehydration can be a risk factor for delirium 56 (94.9) 59 (100)
20. Delirium is generally caused by alcohol withdrawal 56 (94.9) 56 (94.9)
21. A family history of dementia predisposes a patient to delirium 44 (74.6) 47 (81.0)
Items related to knowledge about delirium prevention and management strategies   
22. Treatment of delirium always includes sedation 49 (83.1) 54 (91.5)
23. Daily use of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the best way for diagnosing delirium 36 (61.0) 35 (59.3)
24. Providing as much staff as possible to take care at the patients’ bedside is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium 59 (100) 59 (100)
25. The use of physical restraints in patients at risk for delirium is the best way to ensure their safety 53 (59.8) 56 (94.9)
26. Encouraging patients to (correctly) wear their visual/hearing aids is necessary to prevent delirium 46 (78.0) 59 (100)
27. Adequate hydration is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium 55 (93.2) 59 (100)
28. The maintenance of a normal sleep-wake cycle (e.g., avoidance of sleep interruption) is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium 55 (93.2) 58 (98.3)
29. The use of haloperidol in preoperative surgical fracture patients is a way to prevent delirium 54 (91.5) 51 (86.4)
30. The stimulation of patients to perform different activities at the same time is a way to prevent delirium 59 (100) 58 (98.3)
31. Keeping instructions for patients as simple as possible is important in the prevention of delirium 50 (84.7) 52 (88.1)
32. Early activation/ambulation (e.g., getting patients out of bed as soon as possible) of patients is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium 40 (67.8) 55 (93.2)
33. Providing patients with familiar objects (e.g., photos, clock, newspaper) is important to prevent sensory deprivation 48 (81.4) 55 (93.2)
34. Avoid eye contact in the prevention of delirium because it can be seen as a threat 59 (100) 57 (96.6)
35. Keeping oral contact with the patient is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium 46 (78) 53 (89.8)