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Table 5 Classroom photographs by level of engagement and modality of instruction

From: Evaluating medical student engagement during virtual patient simulations: a sequential, mixed methods study

Level Level of engagement Category/code VPS Transition Traditional
   Total photographs taken Photo n = 165 Photo n = 34 Photo n = 93
High Engagement Very High Highly Engaged— at least one student 37 4 1
 Pleased expression
 Rapt concentration
High Leaning In—all students 51   
High Focused on Task – all students in the team 64   22
High Interactive-at least one student 42 6 11
 Gesturing to illustrate joint
 Pointing to the simulation on laptop
 Discussing with tutor
 Taking notes
 Discussing with peers
Medium Medium Transition Activitiesa   34  
 Some teams finishing the simulation
 Completing Competency Task
 Waiting while others finish VPS
 Discussing with tutor
Medium Passive Pose— all students    25
Low Low Low Enthusiasm but Focused on Task: at least one student 13   22
 Head in hand leaning down
 Lethargic demeanor
Low Low Enthusiasm-Less Focused on Task: at least one student 5   13
 Not paying attention to PPT
 Difficult to see VPS screen
 Leaning away
Very Low Reserved: at least one student    21
 Sitting with arms crossed.
  1. Student N = 107. Photo N = 292. Some photographs were cross-coded to more than one category
  2. aThere was a period of transition between VPS and traditional small group instruction