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Table 1 The psychometric properties of the prescribing readiness of medical students (PROMS)

From: Development and validation of an instrument to assess the prescribing readiness of medical students in Malaysia

   Test (n = 119) Retest (n = 119) Wilcoxon Sign Rank test Spearman’s rho correlation‡ Corrected item-total correlation Cronbach’s α if item is deleted Cronbach alpha
Domain Item Mean (SD) Median Mean (SD) Median Mean rank p-value ‡
Undergraduate learning opportunities 1. Lectures on the basic pharmacology of drugs 2.93 (0.41) 3.00 2.92 (0.42) 3.00 14.08 0.847 0.233 0.234 0.751 0.736
12.00
2. Lectures on the use of drugs in clinical practice 2.53 (0.59) 3.00 2.53 (0.62) 3.00 21.66 0.982 0.416 0.235 0.759
19.45
3. Small group tutorials about drugs and prescribing 2.05 (0.64) 2.00 2.12 (0.67) 2.00 20.08 0.338 0.409 0.591 0.664
22.67
4. Problem based learning about drugs and prescribing 2.13 (0.67) 2.00 2.13 (0.67) 2.00 25.92 0.912 0.312 0.602 0.658
25.08
5. Workshops on prescribing issues 1.87 (0.66) 2.00 1.98 (0.69) 2.00 24.08 0.094 0.366 0.664 0.639
25.58
6. Electronic learning opportunities 1.98 (0.77) 2.00 2.10 (0.76) 2.00 28.75 0.169 0.268 0.513 0.690
30.03
Hands-on clinical skills practice 7. Write up a hospital drug cardex 1.56 (0.68) 1.00 1.63 (0.72) 2.00 19.50 0.252 0.431 0.336 0.474 0.542
22.17
8. A teaching session on calculating drug doses 1.58 (0.66) 2.00 1.67 (0.64) 2.00 19.96 0.087 0.523 0.373 0.458
20.02
9. Set up a drug infusion pump 1.28 (0.50) 1.00 1.55 (0.79) 1.00 19.50 <0.001* 0.549 0.206 0.537
18.92
10. Prepare and give a parenteral drug injection 2.51 (1.15) 2.00 2.49 (1.10) 2.00 29.88 0.857 0.528 0.282 0.540
27.30
11. Set up and give a bag of intravenous fluid 1.93 (0.90) 2.00 1.95 (0.90) 2.00 17.56 0.769 0.660 0.410 0.414
18.42
Information gathering behaviour 12. Web based resources 2.97 (1.24) 3.00 2.81 (1.05) 3.00 32.95 0.158 0.495 0.353 0.563 0.610
34.35
13. Online medical school resources 3.08 (1.14) 3.00 3.23 (1.12) 3.00 31.74 0.141 0.506 0.539 0.458
33.89
14. Your own textbook 3.42 (1.27) 4.00 3.49 (1.23) 4.00 27.30 0.608 0.589 0.370 0.554
30.64
15. Your own BNF or equivalent 1.96 (1.11) 1.00 1.93 (1.14) 1.00 21.77 0.773 0.536 0.289 0.593
25.75
16. Library resources 1.43 (0.81) 1.00 1.42 (0 .77) 1.00 17.30 0.930 0.438 0.296 0.590
15.79
Factors affecting prescribing skills acquisition 17. No lecture or formal teaching on prescribing drugs 3.17 (1.12) 3.00 3.21 (0.91) 3.00 30.14 0.923 0.341    
34.05
18. Amount of knowledge on drugs needed to be learnt is too much during each clinical posting 3.08 (1.02) 3.00 2.87 (0 .99) 3.00 36.54 0.065 0.333    
31.59
19. Will not be questioned on prescribing drugs in the final examination 2.09 (0.86) 2.00 2.03 (0 .80) 2.00 23.08 0.473 0.571    
22.90
20. Many clinical teachers do not explain about their rationale for their choice of drugs prescribed 2.75 (0.95) 3.00 2.80 (0.84) 3.00 29.28 0.454 0.507    
32.56
21. Not enough of reinforcement of pharmacology knowledge in the clinical years 3.13 (0.95) 3.00 3.15 (0.84) 3.00 28.50 0.804 0.506    
31.55
22. Not necessary for me to know how to prescribe drugs before graduation 1.99 (0.93) 2.00 1.97 (0.91) 2.00 24.68 0.750 0.544    
24.30
23. Lack of consensus among clinical teachers on drug prescribing 2.61 (0.79) 3.00 2.73 (0.77) 3.00 25.64 0.140 0.422    
27.08
24. Preclinical learning on pharmacology didn’t have enough clinical relevance 3.34 (1.11) 3.00 3.33 (1.02) 3.00 34.23 0.880 0.593    
36.92
25. No actual practice, experience or emphasis on prescribing in clinical years 3.48 (0.95) 3.00 3.42 (0.94) 3.00 32.71 0.431 0.576    
31.17
26. Limited exposure to information that can help in making rational drug choice 3.03 (1.00) 3.00 2.89 (0.89) 3.00 36.26 0.096 0.540    
27.00
  1. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05
  2. ‡All Spearman’s rho correlation values were statistically significant at p < 0.05