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Table 1 Hierarchical inclusion relationship between architecture and pedagogical strategies (or methods) modified by Calvani, 2012 [27]

From: A cross-sectional study of pedagogical strategies in nursing education: opportunities and constraints toward using effective pedagogy

Meta-architecture Didactic architecture Characteristics Pedagogical strategy (methods)
Meta-architecture teacher focussed Receptive (transmissive) Control by teacher/system Lesson
Highly pre-structuring of information  
Scarce or absent interaction  
Behavioral (directive-interactive) Control by teacher/system Tutorial approach
Field trip
Highly pre-structuring of information  
Extensive interaction  
Extensive feedback control  
Meta-architecture student focussed Situated guided discovery Control shared by teacher and student Problem solving
Problem based learning
Partially pre-structuring of information  
Extensive interaction  
Simulative Student controlled Simulation
Role playing
Case studies
Pre-structured information or model  
Extensive interaction with model/system  
Collaborative Student controlled Cooperative learning
More or less pre-structuring of goals  
Extensive interaction between peer  
Explorative Student controlled Project
Little, if any, pre-structuring of information  
Little interaction  
Metacognitive Teacher transfer of control to students Self-regulated learning
Completely student-controlled in time