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Table 3 Means and standard deviations of pre- and post-course acceptability scores of male and female students and the mean changes in their perceptions

From: Saudi dental students’ perceptions of pediatric behavior guidance techniques

Technique or situation Pre-course scores Post-course scores Change
  Females Males Females Males Females Males
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Reinforcement techniques
 Positive verbal reinforcement 4.34 ± 0.68 3.95 ± 0.95 4.23 ± 0.54 4.12 ± 0.90 −0.11 ± 0.83 0.16 ± 1.13
 Promising a toy 4.03 ± 0.74 4.09 ± 0.75 3.51 ± 1.09 3.91 ± 0.78 −0.51 ± 1.19 −0.19 ± 1.02
 Using the word “coward” 3.69 ± 1.02 3.40 ± 1.15 3.63 ± 1.06 3.58 ± 1.05 −0.06 ± 1.02 0.19 ± 1.11
Aversive techniques
 Voice control 3.46 ± 1.12 3.05 ± 1.21 3.77 ± 0.80 3.58 ± 0.98 0.31 ± 1.23 0.53 ± 1.05
 Hand-over-mouth 1.69 ± 0.99 2.19 ± 1.13 2.09 ± 1.06 2.56 ± 1.24 0.40 ± 1.24 0.37 ± 1.60
 Immobilization by staff or parent 2.57 ± 0.85 2.98 ± 0.88 2.26 ± 0.85 2.63 ± 0.90 −0.31 ± 0.96 −0.35 ± 1.11
 Immobilization using papoose board 2.14 ± 0.87 2.16 ± 0.78 2.00 ± 0.80b 2.53 ± 1.00b −0.14 ± 0.81c 0.37 ± 1.17c
Desensitization techniques
 Tell-show-do 4.17 ± 0.82 3.98 ± 1.03 4.06 ± 0.96 3.95 ± 1.13 −0.11 ± 1.07 −0.02 ± 1.53
 Providing exact explanation 3.69 ± 0.71 3.74 ± 0.95 3.54 ± 0.91 3.77 ± 1.04 −0.14 ± 1.08 0.02 ± 1.22
 Using music or video distraction 4.09 ± 0.78 3.93 ± 0.75 4.23 ± 0.77 4.02 ± 1.07 0.14 ± 0.73 0.07 ± 1.07
 Using the child’s imagination 4.46 ± 0.65 3.95 ± 0.89 4.51 ± 0.50 3.84 ± 0.94 0.06 ± 0.68 −0.12 ± 0.95
 Use of euphemisms 3.86 ± 0.94 3.93 ± 0.85 4.03 ± 0.78 3.93 ± 1.03 0.17 ± 0.82 0.00 ± 1.06
 Modeling 3.23 ± 1.23a 2.28 ± 0.45a 3.80 ± 1.07 4.00 ± 0.84 0.57 ± 1.17c 1.72 ± 0.95c
Pharmacological techniques
 Nitrous oxide 3.60 ± 0.69 3.49 ± 0.82 3.91 ± 0.65 3.77 ± 0.94 0.31 ± 0.86 0.28 ± 1.07
 Using sedation 2.74 ± 1.01 3.07 ± 0.93 3.34 ± 0.90 3.49 ± 0.96 0.60 ± 1.28 0.42 ± 1.07
 General anesthesia 2.66 ± 0.87 2.79 ± 1.28 3.20 ± 1.02 3.05 ± 1.30 0.54 ± 1.35 0.26 ± 1.25
Communicative techniques
 Disallowing child speaking during treatment 2.43 ± 0.81 2.30 ± 0.88 2.26 ± 0.74 2.56 ± 1.05 −0.17 ± 1.04 0.26 ± 1.36
 Mentioning the possibility of pain 3.46 ± 0.78a 3.07 ± 1.03a 3.29 ± 0.89 3.56 ± 0.73 −0.17 ± 1.20c 0.49 ± 1.09c
 Treatment without local anesthetic 1.57 ± 0.69a 1.00 ± 0.00a 1.80 ± 0.86b 2.30 ± 1.08b 0.23 ± 0.91c 1.30 ± 1.08c
 Allowing child to stop treatment 3.40 ± 0.97a 2.30 ± 0.59a 3.46 ± 1.17 3.23 ± 1.04 0.06 ± 1.30c 0.93 ± 1.14c
 Dentist talks with parent during treatment 2.09 ± 1.09 2.35 ± 0.78 2.43 ± 0.91b 3.33 ± 0.99b 0.34 ± 1.16c 0.98 ± 1.28c
 Dentist remains quiet during treatment 2.31 ± 1.10 2.07 ± 0.66 2.77 ± 0.91 2.72 ± 0.95 0.46 ± 1.44 0.65 ± 1.13
 Parent talks with child during treatment 2.00 ± 0.90 2.21 ± 0.55 2.31 ± 0.83b 3.53 ± 0.73b 0.31 ± 1.13c 1.33 ± 1.01c
Clinical situations
 Parent separation 3.20 ± 1.10 2.72 ± 1.16 3.63 ± 0.94 2.79 ± 1.18 0.43 ± 1.22 0.07 ± 1.33
 Parent present during treatment 3.03 ± 1.07a 2.40 ± 0.49a 3.31 ± 0.76b 3.48 ± 0.97b 0.29 ± 0.95c 1.44 ± 1.05c
 Showing the needle to the child 1.23 ± 0.49a 1.00 ± 0.00a 1.34 ± 0.68 1.67 ± 1.06 0.11 ± 0.75c 0.67 ± 1.06c
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. Same letters in the horizontal rows indicate significant differences from each other. P<0.05 (analysis of variance)