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Table 2 Means and standard deviations of pre- and post-course acceptability scores and the mean changes between them

From: Saudi dental students’ perceptions of pediatric behavior guidance techniques

Technique or situation Pre-course scores Post-course scores Change P value*
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD (95 % CI)  
Reinforcement techniques
 Positive verbal reinforcement 4.13 ± 0.85 4.17 ± 0.79 0.04 ± 1.01 (−0.19 – 0.26) NS
 Promising a toy 4.06 ± 0.74 3.73 ± 0.94 −0.33 ± 1.11 (−0.58 – −0.08) 0.01
 Using the word “coward” 3.53 ± 1.10 3.60 ± 1.04 0.07 ± 1.07 (−0.16 – 0.32) NS
 Overall score 3.91 ± 0.61 3.83 ± 0.61 – 0.07 ± 0.74 (−0.24 – 0.09) NS
Aversive techniques
 Voice control 3.23 ± 1.18 3.67 ± 0.90 0.43 ± 1.35 (0.18 – 0.69) 0.001
 Hand-over-mouth 1.96 ± 1.09 2.35 ± 1.18 0.38 ± 1.44 (0.06 – 0.70) 0.021
 Immobilization by staff or parent 2.79 ± 0.88 2.46 ± 0.89 −0.33 ± 0.94 (−0.54 – −0.11) 0.003
 Immobilization using papoose board 2.15 ± 0.82 2.29 ± 0.95 0.14 ± 1.05 (−0.09 – 0.37) NS
 Overall score 2.45 ± 0.67 2.69 ± 0.65 0.16 ± 0.66 (0.01 – 0.30) 0.04
Desensitization techniques
 Tell-show-do 4.06 ± 0.94 4.00 ± 1.05 −0.06 ± 0.15 (−0.36 – 0.23) NS
 Providing exact explanation 3.72 ± 0.85 3.67 ± 0.98 −0.05 ± 1.16 (−0.31 – 0.21) NS
 Using music or video distraction 4.01 ± 0.76 4.12 ± 0.93 0.10 ± 0.93 (−0.10 – 0.31) NS
 Using the child’s imagination 4.18 ± 0.83 4.14 ± 0.84 −0.04 ± 0.84 (−0.22 – 0.15) NS
 Use of euphemisms 3.90 ± 0.89 3.97 ± 0.92 0.07 ± 0.96 (−0.14 – 0.29) NS
 Modeling 2.71 ± 1.01 3.91 ± 0.95 1.20 ± 1.19 (0.93 – 1.47) < 0.0001
 Overall score 3.76 ± 0.46 3.97 ± 0.55 0.21 ± 0.56 (−0.01 – 0.38) NS
Pharmacological techniques
 Nitrous oxide 3.54 ± 0.76 3.83 ± 0.82 0.29 ± 0.98 (0.07 – 0.51) 0.01
 Using sedation 2.92 ± 0.97 3.42 ± 0.93 0.50 ± 1.17 (0.23 – 0.76) < 0.0001
 General anesthesia 2.73 ± 1.11 3.12 ± 1.18 0.38 ± 1.30 (0.09 – 0.67) < 0.0001
 Overall score 3.06 ± 0.66 3.46 ± 0.75 0.39 ± 0.74 (0.22 – 0.56) < 0.0001
Communicative techniques
 Disallowing child speaking during treatment 2.36 ± 0.85 2.42 ± 0.93 0.06 ± 1.24 (−0.21 – 0.34) NS
 Mentioning the possibility of pain 3.24 ± 0.94 3.44 ± 0.81 0.19 ± 1.18 (−0.07 – 0.45) NS
 Treatment without local anesthetic 1.26 ± 0.54 2.08 ± 1.01 0.82 ± 1.13 (0.56 – 1.07) < 0.0001
 Allowing child to stop treatment 2.79 ± 0.95 3.33 ± 1.10 0.54 ± 1.28 (0.24 – 0.82) < 0.0001
 Dentist talks with parent during treatment 2.23 ± 0.93 2.92 ± 1.05 0.69 ± 1.22 (0.40 – 0.97) < 0.0001
 Dentist remains quiet during treatment 2.18 ± 0.89 2.74 ± 0.93 0.56 ± 1.27 (0.27 – 0.85) < 0.0001
 Parent talks with child during treatment 2.12 ± 0.73 2.99 ± 1.01 0.87 ± 1.17 (0.60 – 1.13) < 0.0001
 Overall score 2.31 ± 0.36 2.82 ± 0.45 0.53 ± 0.62 (0.39 – 0.67) < 0.0001
Clinical situations
 Parent separation 2.94 ± 1.15 3.17 ± 1.15 0.23 ± 1.28 (−0.6 – 0.52) NS
 Parent present during treatment 2.68 ± 0.86 3.60 ± 0.93 0.92 ± 1.16 (0.66 – 1.18) < 0.0001
 Showing the needle to the child 1.10 ± 0.34 1.53 ± 0.92 0.42 ± 0.97 (0.20 – 0.64) < 0.0001
 Overall score 2.24 ± 0.47 2.76 ± 0.43 0.52 ± 0.57 (0.39 – 0.65) < 0.0001
  1. SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval of the difference
  2. *Paired t-test, NS= not significant, P>0.05