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Table 2 Comparison of the learning approaches

From: The relationship between learning preferences (styles and approaches) and learning outcomes among pre-clinical undergraduate medical students

  Superficial Deep/Strategic Chi square Odds ratio
  n (%) n (%) p-value  
Year 2 55 (25.3) 162 (74.7) 0.176 1.375
Year 3 40 (19.8) 162 (80.2)   
(Yr2 & Yr3) 95 (22.7) 324 (77.3)   
Malaysian 90 (23.5) 293 (76.5) 0.188 1.904
International 5 (13.9) 31 (86.1)   
Online Lectures 66 (21.8) 237 (78.2) 0.482 1.197
Books 74 (22.2) 260 (77.8) 0.616 1.153
Discussion 23 (24.2) 72 (75.8) 0.684 0.894
Own Notes 12 (15.2) 67 (84.8) 0.078 1.803
Male 48 (25.5) 140 (74.5) 0.207 1.342
Female 47 (20.3) 184 (79.7)   
Undergraduate 92 (22.4) 318 (77.6) 0.440 0.579
Postgraduate 3 (33.3) 6 (66.7)   
Age ≤20 27 (20.9) 102 (79.1) 0.570 0.864
Age > 20 68 (23.4) 222 (76.6)   
Unimodal 76 (22.2) 267 (77.8) 0.592 0.854
Multimodal 19 (25) 57 (75)   
Mid/High Achievers 66 (20.6) 255 (79.4) 0.062 1.624
Low Achievers 29 (29.6) 69 (70.4)   
  1. p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.