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Table 5 Experts’ evaluation of SWOT analyses at the beginning of the training program and 12 months after

From: Training hospital managers for strategic planning and management: a prospective study

SWOT analysis ICC †† Evaluators’ grading Differences*
Before (SWOT I) After (SWOT II)
Before After Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
External environment:  
Analysis of macro-environment 0.84 0.83 3.19 ± 0.67 3.68 ± 0.65 0.49 ± 0.19††
Evidence-based analysis of environment 0.75 0.73 2.87 ± 0.51 3.29 ± 0.53 0.43 ± 0.18††
Analysis of stakeholders 0.80 0.64 2.98 ± 0.66 3.46 ± 0.65 0.48 ± 0.22††
Analysis of competitors 0.83 0.76 2.89 ± 0.57 3.33 ± 0.53 0.44 ± 0.24††
External analysis relates to mission & vision 0.67 0.61 3.07 ± 0.69 3.44 ± 0.71 0.37 ± 0.17††
Internal environment:  
Internal analysis 0.71 0.73 3.23 ± 0.56 3.64 ± 0.63 0.41 ± 0.21††
Analysis of customers 0.67 0.78 2.87 ± 0.64 3.26 ± 0.61 0.38 ± 0.33††
Analysis of general resources 0.50 0.96 3.31 ± 0.53 3.71 ± 0.46 0.40 ± 0.25††
Analysis of services 0.78 0.71 3.19 ± 0.44 3.54 ± 0.43 0.35 ± 0.22††
Analysis of financial resources 0.92 1.00 3.28 ± 0.62 3.75 ± 0.63 0.47 ± 0.25††
Hospital performance 1.00 0.95 3.54 ± 0.53 3.97 ± 0.48 0.42 ± 0.25††
Technical skills in application of SWOT analysis 0.88** 0.89** 3.22 ± 0.47 3.65 ± 0.45 0.44 ± 0.14††
Number of items in the external and internal environment 0.93 0.92 3.46 ± 0.45 3.86 ± 0.46 0.39 ± 0.19††
Items are arranged from most to least important 0.93 0.96 3.16 ± 0.59 3.62 ± 0.56 0.46 ± 0.22††
Items are arranged according to external and internal environment 0.96 0.95 3.02 ± 0.53 3.48 ± 0.47 0.46 ± 0.23††
Identification of strategies 0.97 0.95 3.54 ± 0.46 3.98 ± 0.40 0.45 ± 0.24††
  1. *mean difference = after – before.
  2. **α = Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for internal consistency of questions which comprised several items (recommended value ≥ 0.70).
  3. ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient.
  4. ††p < 0.001.