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Table 1 Adapted virtual patient classification with two levels of description

From: Virtual patients - what are we talking about? A framework to classify the meanings of the term in healthcare education

Class label Predominant competency Predominant technology Short description
Case Presentation Knowledge Multimedia systems Interactive multimedia presentation of a patient case to teach primarily basic medical knowledge
Interactive Patient Scenario Clinical reasoning Multimedia systems Interactive multimedia presentation of a patient case to teach mainly clinical reasoning skills (e.g. VPs created for the eViP project)
VP Game Clinical reasoning or Team training Virtual worlds Virtual world to simulate high risk scenarios and team training situations (e.g. Second Life VPs)
High Fidelity Software Simulation Procedural or basic clinical skills Dynamic simulations or mixed reality Real-time simulation of human physiology to teach mainly procedures or skills such as surgical simulations. Non-standard devices (e.g. haptic technology) can be included.
Human Standardized Patient Patient communication skills Multimedia systems Video-recorded actors who role-play a patient to train patient communication skills.
High Fidelity Manikin Procedural and basic clinical skills, /Team training Manikins or Part Task Trainers Manikins with realistic anatomy to train complex procedures such as endoscopy.
Virtual Standardized Patient Patient communication skills Conversational characters A virtual representation of a human being using artificial intelligence technologies and natural language processing to train communication skills.
  1. Additional file 1 shows a more detailed description of the competencies and technologies.