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Table 3 Examples of statements on the revised Jefferson Scale of Empathy (student version) showing differences between groups for questionnaire items pertaining to influence versus items pertaining to empathy

From: Art-making in a family medicine clerkship: how does it affect medical student empathy?

  Art-making Problem-solving
Pre n = 48 Post n = 48 Difference Pre n = 58 Post n = 58 Difference
Items pertaining to influence
1) Physicians' understanding of their patients' feelings and the feelings of their patient's families does not influence medical or surgical treatment.* 5.48 5.13 −0.35 5.72 4.97 −0.76
8) Attentiveness to patient's personal experiences does not influence treatment outcomes.* 5.48 5.11 −0.37 5.55 5.43 −0.12
11) Patient's illnesses can be cured only by medical or surgical treatment; therefore, physician's emotional ties with their patients do not have a significant influence in medical or surgical treatment.* 5.67 5.06 −0.61 5.62 5.53 −0.09
14) I believe that emotion has no place in the treatment of medical illness.* 5.88 5.38 −0.50 5.81 5.76 −0.05
18) Physicians should not allow themselves to be influenced by strong personal bonds between their patients and their family members.* 3.50 3.75 0.25 2.98 3.55 0.57
Items pertaining to empathy
9) Physicians should try to stand in their patient's shoes when providing care to them. 5.85 5.73 −0.13 5.71 5.57 −0.14
15) Empathy is a therapeutic skill without which the physician's success is limited. 5.50 5.31 −0.19 5.29 5.40 0.10
17) Physicians should try to think like their patients in order to render better care. 5.10 5.02 −0.08 5.07 5.16 0.09
20) I believe that empathy is an important therapeutic factor in medical treatment 5.67 5.67 0.00 5.81 5.90 0.09
  1. *These statements have been reverse scored. Therefore, in this table a higher score equates to a higher level of empathy as if the items were positively worded.
  2. Numbers in bold show large differences between groups.