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Table 5 Comparison between the numbers and types of words used in white (W) and ethnic minority (EM) students' essays.

From: The effect of a brief social intervention on the examination results of UK medical students: a cluster randomised controlled trial

Dimensions Word categories Type of word Group with highest frequency t Mean use by all students Mean Difference between groups p value
Standard linguistic dimensions % of dictionary words   EM -2.0 75.5 -1.2 0.04
  Total pronouns Pronoun EM -2.8 10.9 -0.9 0.01
Psychologi-cal processes Affective or emotional processes Optimism and energy (certainty, pride, win) W 2.0 0.9 0.2 0.05
  Cognitive processes Cognitive processes EM -2.2 0.1 -0.5 0.03
  Sensory and perceptual processes Hear (heard, listen, sound) EM -3.5 0.9 -0.3 <0.001
  Social Processes Communication (talk, share converse) EM -2.4 2.2 -0.4 0.02
Relativity Motion Motion (walk, move, go) EM -2.5 0.9 -0.2 0.01
Personal Concerns Occupation Job or work (employ, boss, career) W 2.2 1.1 0.2 0.03
  Metaphysical issues Religion (God, church, rabbi) EM -2.1 0.2 -0.2 0.04
  1. Examples of words given in parentheses. Only differences significant at the p < 0.05 level shown in the table, and those significant at p < 0.001 in bold.