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Table 2 Analysis by clusters analysis of depressive symptoms assessed by Beck Depression Inventory scores among medical students (n = 481).

From: The characteristics of depressive symptoms in medical students during medical education and training: a cross-sectional study

Periods Basic Intermediate internship Total ANOVA
Cluster m (sd) m (sd) m (sd) m (sd)  
Affective 2.1 (2.7) 1.8 (2.0) 3.5 (2.4)a,b 2.4 (2.5) <.001
Cognitive 4.0 (3.9) 3.2 (3.4)c 4.7 (3.6) 3.9 (3.8) <.01
Somatic 2.8 (2.2)c 2.1 (2.2)d 3.8 (2.6)b 2.9 (2.4) <.001
BDI total 8.6 (7.9)c 7.0 (6.9) 11.7 (7.2)b 9.1 (7.6) <.001
  1. significant post hoc Tukey comparing each year of medical course
  2. a p < .001 in comparison to basic period medical school
  3. b p < .001 in comparison to intermediate period medical school
  4. c p < .01 in comparison to internship period medical school
  5. d p < .05 in comparison to basic period medical school