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Table 2 All students enrolled in Phase 1 in 2006 and 2007 – Relationship between single and multiple attempts at online formative assessments and End of Course examination marks

From: Integrated online formative assessments in the biomedical sciences for medical students: benefits for learning

    End of Course Examination Marks
     ANOVA Multiple comparison
Course Attempts N Mean F-score P value   Mean difference (95% CI) P value
1 0 99 60.8 13.3 < 0.001 0 VS 1 6.1 (3.2, 9.0) < 0.001
  1 262 66.9    0 VS ≥ 2 5.6 (2.2, 9.1) < 0.001
  ≥ 2 108 66.4    1 VS ≥ 2 -.5 (-3.3, 2.3) 1.000
2 0 62 62.8 2.2 0.112 0 VS 1 3.1 (-.8, 6.9) 0.166
  1 236 65.8    0 VS ≥ 2 3.3 (-.7, 7.4) 0.136
  ≥ 2 164 66.1    1 VS ≥ 2 .3 (-2.5, 3.0) 1.000
3 0 70 66.0 4.8 0.009 0 VS 1 3.1 (.1, 6.1) 0.037
  1 227 69.1    0 VS ≥ 2 4.0 (.9, 7.1) 0.007
  ≥ 2 165 70.0    1 VS ≥ 2 .9 (-1.4, 3.1) 1.000
4 0 90 59.0 14.1 < 0.001 0 VS 1 4.5 (1.6, 7.5) 0.001
  1 202 63.5    0 VS ≥ 2 6.7 (3.6, 9.7) 0.000
  ≥ 2 165 65.6    1 VS ≥ 2 2.1 (-.3, 4.5) 0.111
5 0 44 59.4 9.1 < 0.001 0 VS 1 7.3 (3.1, 11.6) < .001
  1 233 66.8    0 VS ≥ 2 5.3 (1.0, 9.5) 0.009
  ≥ 2 233 64.7    1 VS ≥ 2 -2.1 (-4.5, .3) 0.112
6 0 71 59.6 6.5 0.002 0 VS 1 5.0 (1.2, 8.7) 0.005
  1 246 64.6    0 VS ≥ 2 5.7 (1.8, 9.6) 0.001
  ≥ 2 190 65.3    1 VS ≥ 2 .7 (-2.0, 3.4) 1.000
7 0 122 61.5 7.8 < 0.001 0 VS 1 3.7 (1.4, 6.0) 0.000
  1 290 65.2    0 VS ≥ 2 3.0 (.1, 6.0) 0.044
  ≥ 2 87 64.5    1 VS ≥ 2 .7 (-.3, 1.9) 1.000
  1. Statistical analysis to determine whether a relationship existed between the number of attempts at online formative assessments in each course and End of Course examination marks was performed by ANOVA, with post-hoc testing by Bonferroni multiple comparisons.