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Table 1 Outcomes and impact of evidence-based medicine (EBM) Teaching and learning

From: A hierarchy of effective teaching and learning to acquire competence in evidenced-based medicine

Kirkpatrick scale* Outcome measures
Participation Learners' views on the learning experience during educational activity (e.g. post teaching questionnaire)
Modification of attitudes/perceptions Change in attitudes or perceptions between participant groups as a result of educational activity (e.g. difference between pre and post teaching questionnaire on attitudes)
Modification of knowledge or skills Change in knowledge or skills between participant groups as a result of educational activity (e.g. difference in performance between pre and post tests)
Behavioural change Transfer of learning to the workplace or willingness of learners to apply new knowledge or skills (e.g. difference between pre and post questionnaire on attitudes)
Change in organisational practice Wider changes in the organisation/delivery of care, attributable to educational activity (e.g. updating of guidelines or care pathways)
Benefit to patients/clients Improvement in the health and wellbeing of patients as a result of educational activity (e.g. audit of outcomes in practice)
  1. * adapted from Belfield et al [9]