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Table 2 Pakistani Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitude towards Research According to Gender, Type of High School, Year and Mode of Learning at Medical School

From: Knowledge and attitudes about health research amongst a group of Pakistani medical students

   No. Knowledge Attitude
    Mean+SD p-value Mean+SD p-value
Gender Male 122 49.4+19.8 0.705 57.7+21.7 0.001
  Female 73 48.4+18.6   47.2+19.1  
High school type HSSC 73 47.5+20.9 0.349 54.2+18.9 0.615
  A-Levels 110 50.0+18.5   53.4+22.4  
  Others 12 55.8+16.2   59.7+20.7  
Mode of learning PBL 131 45.7+20.9 <0.001 49.0+18.6 <0.001
  LBL 66 55.5+15.3   63.5+23.1  
Year at medical school 1st 47 43.2+19.0   39.2+16.0  
  2nd 46 47.0+21.5   55.4+18.1  
  3rd 38 47.4+22.7   53.7+17.3  
  4th 32 58.4+17.3   60.7+27.2  
  5th 34 52.6+12.9   66.2+18.6  
Total   197 49.0+19.7   53.7+21.4  
  1. HSSC, Higher secondary school certificate; A-levels, Advanced level; PBL, Problem based learning; LBL, Lecture based learning; SD, Standard deviating