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Table 4 Factors Associated with Improvements in Knowledge, Confidence and Communication.

From: Randomized controlled trial comparing four strategies for delivering e-curriculum to health care professionals [ISRCTN88148532]

Characteristic Change in %Correct,
Knowledge Questions
P Value Change in Confidence
Scale Score
P Value Change in Communications
Practices Scale Score
P Value
  N (mean ± SD)   N (mean ± SD)   N (mean ± SD)  
Overall change from baseline 768 22.0 ± 13.2   735 10.5 ± 22.8   440 .33 ± 1.74  
Gender          
Male 177 21.8 ± 14.2 .18* 164 11.8 ± 20.6 .72# 110 .26 ± 1.55 .52#
Female 591 22.0 ± 12.9   571 10.1 ± 23.5   330 .35 ± 1.81  
Delivery Method          
Push 394 21.7 ± 12.7 .58* 382 10.5 ± 22.6 .79# 230 .27 ± 1.69 .16#
Pull 374 22.2 ± 13.7   353 10.4 ± 23.1   320 .38 ± 1.81  
Drip 402 22.7 ± 13.5 .10* 388 10.6 ± 23.6 .65# 226 .35 ± 1.85 .74#
Bolus 366 21.2 ± 12.8   347 10.3 ± 22.0   214 .30 ± 1.62  
Practice Status          
Trainee 263 22.9 ± 15.1 .84* 248 15.7 ± 21.4 <.001# 112 .28 ± 1.55 .56#
Faculty/Practice 505 21.5 ± 12.1   487 7.8 ± 23.1   328 .34 ± 1.81  
Seen Patients in last 30 days          
No 231 24.9 ± 14.7 <.001* 216 14.6 ± 22.7 <.001#    
Yes 537 20.7 ± 12.3   519 8.8 ± 22.7   Required for this measure  
Paid CE Fee          
No 319 20.5 ± 15.0 .012* 307 7.4 ± 23.8 .006# 122 .43 ± 1.57 .31#
Yes 449 23.0 ± 11.6   428 12.7 ± 21.9   318 .28 ± 1.81  
Age          
≤30 years 198 24.4 ± 15.0 .005† 187 15.4 ± 22.2 .001^ 83 .27 ± 1.57 .51^
31–40 years 121 19.6 ± 12.0   117 7.0 ± 24.0   75 .54 ± 1.60  
41–50 years 229 20.8 ± 12.0   220 7.4 ± 23.1   145 .20 ± 1.72  
>50 years 220 22.4 ± 13.0   211 11.3 ± 21.8   137 .38 ± 1.94  
Professional Group          
Nutrition/Dietician 110 23.4 ± 10.6 <.001† 111 2.9 ± 24.9 <.001^ 60 .37 ± 1.84 .28#
Nurse/NP 205 23.3 ± 12.5   195 12.4 ± 23.8   126 .29 ± 2.06  
Physican/PA 231 18.6 ± 12.4   218 9.2 ± 21.5   176 .44 ± 1.59  
Pharmacist 43 20.0 ± 12.3   43 -3.4 ± 18.3   17 .56 ± 0.93  
Student 179 24.4 ± 15.6   168 18.5 ± 19.6   61 -.05 ± 1.50  
No. Herbs and Supplement Used    <.001†    .76^    .47^
0 111 24.4 ± 15.0   103 7.8 ± 26.5   55 .32 ± 1.46  
1–3 241 23.5 ± 12.8   232 11.1 ± 24.4   133 .32 ± 1.57  
4–8 238 21.8 ± 13.8   231 10.6 ± 23.1   146 .47 ± 1.82  
9+ 178 18.7 ± 11.0   169 11.0 ± 17.3   106 .14 ± 1.98  
Computer Expertise Self-Report Scale    .003‡    .058‡    .50‡
1 (Novice) 16 29.5 ± 11.9   12 23.9 ± 16.8    .52 ± 1.48  
2 38 20.9 ± 12.9   39 7.7 ± 25.7    .28 ± 1.37  
3 124 24.3 ± 12.0   120 12.4 ± 22.2    .33 ± 1.87  
4 227 22.7 ± 12.7   214 11.6 ± 22.9    .43 ± 1.65  
5 271 20.0 ± 12.9   264 9.1 ± 23.1    .25 ± 1.92  
6 85 23.1 ± 15.9   81 9.4 ± 21.7    .26 ± 1.45  
7 (Expert) 7 11.7 ± 12.8   5 -1.0 ± 25.3    -.17 ± 1.04  
  1. * T test in conjunction with Levene test for equal variances.
  2. † One-way ANOVA. Pairwise analysis of subgroups not performed.
  3. ‡ Spearman's rho for correlation of ordinal with continuous variable (correlation coefficient = -.11 for knowledge change and -.07 for confidence change).
  4. # Mann Whitney test.
  5. ^ Kruskal Wallis test. Pairwise analysis of subgroups not performed.
  6. Notes: The Confidence Scale ranges from 19 to 95. A change in score of 19 is the equivalent of moving from one Likert scale category (Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neutral, Agree, Strongly Agree) to an adjacent category for each of the 19 items in the scale. A change of 10 could represent similar change for 10 of 19 items, a change of two levels in 5 items, etc.
  7. The Communications Practices Scale ranges from 0 to 10. A change of 1.0 would be the approximate equivalent of increasing the frequency of practices by 10% in each of the 9 percentage items in the scale. A change of 0.2 could represent an increase in frequency of 20% in a single item.