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Table 2 The patients' diagnoses and findings on auscultation. shows the patients relevant cardiac diagnoses, and the findings on auscultation as reported by two cardiologists.

From: Cardiac auscultation training of medical students: a comparison of electronic sensor-based and acoustic stethoscopes

Patient nr 1 Diagnoses Findings*
Day 1:Patient no 1 (1) Mitral valve insufficiency, possible low grade aortic sclerosis Holosystolic, rough high frequency, grade 3/6, max intensity in the fourth left intercostal space in the medioclavicular line with radiation to the left axilla. 2nd heart sound (S2) preserved, no constant splitting of S2. S3 not present.
Patient no 2 (2) Aortic stenosis Holosystolic rough murmur grade 4/6, loudest at the apex. Radiation to the left axilla and the carotid arteries. S2 weakened.
Patient no 3 (3) Control patient without cardiac murmurs -
Patient no 4 (4) Aortic insufficiency High frequency diastolic murmur distinct at the apex.
Day 2:Patient no 1 (1) Same as day 1 Same as day 1.
Patient no 2 (5) Control without murmur -
Patient no 3 (6) VSD Holosystolic ejection sound grade 3/6, loudest at the apex. No radiation. S3 present.
Patient no 4 (7) Mitral valve insufficiency and aortic sclerosis Holosystolic ejection sound grade 4/6. loudest at the apex, radiation to the left axilla and the carotid artery. S3 absent.
Day 3:Patient nr 1 (8) St. Jude prosthetic valve in mitral position, paravalvular leakage Holosystolic rough murmur grade 2, loudest in the left axilla.
Patient nr 2 (9) Control without murmurs -
Patient no 3 (10) Aortic stenosis Crescendo/decrescendo quincking systolic murmur grade 3/6, loudest parasternally at the right second intercostal space. Radiation to the left axilla and to the carotid arteries.
  1. *The findings on auscultation as reported by the two cardiologists.