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Table 1 Factors in empirical research on diagnostic reasoning.

From: The role of strategy and redundancy in diagnostic reasoning

Subjects studied Experts [5], outstanding physicians [2], physicians-at-risk [6], "typical physicians" [7], learners [10] with differing levels of expertise.
Clinical information provided Sequential text fragments [8], x-rays [9, 5], pictures [10] (e.g. dermatology [11], pathology), standardized patients [2], other simulations [12].
Products of reasoning analyzed Diagnostic success [13], items collected [4, 14], recall [15, 16], reflection, "thinking aloud", introspection [5]