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Table 3 Codes related to themes and categories derived from qualitative analyses of semi-standardized interviews conducted with all trainees (n = 9); relevant codes within the quotations are bold

From: Modification of Peyton’s four-step approach for small group teaching – a descriptive study

Categories and themes Codes
A. Methodological approach  
• Learning through observation and action “So, what was actually really good was that you explained it to yourself first, and then tried it out , meaning that, as it were, you were again theoretically reminded of the individual action steps before performing them yourself.”
• Learning through repetition “I found it fairly clear, also because the steps were constantly repeated just as much.”
  “And because when you’ve then heard it relatively often, it gradually gets better and better, each time you somehow pick more of it up.”
• Learning through teaching Yes, I also found it good that you should formulate it yourself, so you instruct somebody to do it and then you get to practice it again yourself, because then, in a way, you could simply give yourself these instructions in your head.”
• Insufficient number of practical performances “I would have maybe performed it once or twice more, but of course there isn’t enough time for that.”
B. Involvement “The fact that everyone is always integrated in some way, so everyone has to be attentive the whole time.”
C. Learning atmosphere and general conditions “I found it very good that it was such a personal conversation between the trainer and the trainee, because, well there were four of us.”
D. General impressions “Well, in the basics of medical clerkship, I had tried out a different principle, but I found this much better.”
E. Time expenditure “So in itself I found it really good that with so little time expenditure you get something so important shown to you.”
F. Subjectively experienced learning success “So, one of the best things was that after he had performed it twice, the second time with an explanation, that on the 3rd and 4th time somebody explained it while another person performed it. And in that way it really did stick .”
G. Use of the mannequin and anticipated transfer to the clinic It was good practicing it on a doll like that, that you already got a bit of an idea.”
H. Teaching in the small group “And also in the small group it was very effective, very positive, if one could set the framework with 3 or 4 people, very good.”
I. Sequence of the training “I also liked the fact that you first watched the whole thing without it being commented on, and then it was commented on in individual steps.”
J. Precision of the training “Because above all, so for me, what I have seen elsewhere is that you completed the things you needed and then went to the patient, and for example almost placed no value on disinfecting and instead briefly sprayed, wiped over it, and then sprayed again and then went right in with the needle. And here, you waited and unpacked the things and everything, and then the disinfectant had really taken effect.”
K. Tutors “Being instructed by somebody with experience, so in this case the senior physician is really clinically oriented.”