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Table 3 Scores on knowledge, reflection ability, consultation behaviour, self-perceived cultural competence per respondent group

From: A students’ survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum

  All Medical students YHC residents YHC supervisors Interpretation of mean scores§
N= 177 N= 86 N= 56 N= 35
Assessed cultural competence domains    
Knowledge      
General knowledge of ethnic minority care provision (score 0–8)  
Mean score (95% CI) 3.7 (3.5-3.9) 3.5 (3.2-3.9)b 3.6 (3.2-3.9)c 4.4 (3.9-5.0)b,c Low level of general knowledge in all respondent groups
% of maximum score 46% 44%b 45%c 55%b,c
Knowledge on interpretation services (score 0–6) Low level of knowledge on interpretation services among medical students, and moderate level among YHC Residents and YHC Supervisors.
Mean score (95% CI) 3.3 (3.1-3.5) 3.0 (2.6 -3.3)a,b 3.6 (3.3-3.9)a 3.7 (3.4-4.1)b
% of maximum score 55% 49% a,b 60%a 62%b
Reflection ability      
GRAS score (score 1–10)  
Mean score (95% CI) 8.0 (7.9-8.1) 8.0 (7.8-8.1) 7.9 (7.8-8.1) 8.1 (7.9-8.3) High ability to reflect in all respondent groups.
Culturally competent consultation behaviour     
Exploring patient perspective (score 0–3) Low score on exploration of patient perspectives in medical students, moderate among YHC Residents and YHC Supervisors.
Mean score (95% CI) 1.9 (1.8-2.1) 1.6 (1.4-1.7)a,b 2.3 (2.1-2.5)a 2.1 (1.8-2.5)b
% of maximum score 64% 52%a,b 77%a 71%b
Interaction with low health literacy (score 0–3)  
Mean score (95% CI) 1.8 (1.7-1.9) 1,9 (1.7-2.0) 1.8 (1.6-2.0) 1.7 (1.4-2.0) Moderate score on interaction with low health literacy in all groups
% of maximum score 60% 62% 60% 56%
Exploring social context (score 0–3) Low score on exploration of social context among medical students and YHC Residents and moderate among YHC Supervisors.
Mean score (95% CI) 1.4 (1.3-1.5)* 1.1 (1.0-1.3)†a,b 1.5 (1.4-1.7)a 1.8 (1.5-2.0)b
% of maximum score 46% 38% 50% 59%
Self-perceived cultural competence     
Self-perceived cc (score 1–10) Moderate self-perceived cultural competence among all respondent groups.
Mean score (95% CI) 6.8 (6.6-6.9) 7.0 (6.7-7.2)a 6.4 (6.1-6.7)a 6.9 (6.5-7.2)
  1. Scores presented as mean scores and mean score as percentage of maximum score.
  2. Significant differences in scores between respondent groups (p< 0,05);represented by:
  3. aindicating a significant difference between medical students and YHC Residents.
  4. bindicating a significant difference between medical students and YHC Supervisors.
  5. cindicating a significant difference between YHC Residents and YHC Supervisors.
  6. §interpretation:<60%= low; 60-80%= moderate; >80%= high.
  7. *N= 176 (1 student missing).
  8. †N= 85 (1 student missing).