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Table 1 Dreyfus model of skill acquisition

From: The physician’s role and empathy – a qualitative study of third year medical students

Novice The student is rigidly adherent to rules.
Advanced beginner The student is not able to discriminate between different aspects of the clinical situation.
Competent The student is now able to identify all relevant elements in the clinical situation and is easily overwhelmed.
Proficient The student has an holistic understanding and is able to discriminate between different aspects of the clinical situation.
Expert The student has an intuitive understanding of the clinical situation based on experience.