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Table 1 Student self-assessments for 33 specific learning objectives (1 = most positive rating; 6 = most negative rating)

From: Assessment of two different types of bias affecting the results of outcome-based evaluation in undergraduate medical education

Learning objectives Summer 2011 Summer 2012
Initial performance level Thentest rating Posttest rating
True pretest (n = 83) Thentest (n = 83) Group A: sequential (n = 42) Group B: direct (n = 32) Group A: sequential (n = 42) Group B: direct (n = 32)
Acute bronchitis 4.35 ± 1.31 4.75 ± 1.24 5.00 ± 0.99 4.56 ± 1.13 3.21 ± 1.46 3.09 ± 1.06
Pericarditis 5.90 ± 0.30 5.51 ± 1.13 5.50 ± 1.11 5.50 ± 1.27 2.74 ± 1.48 2.34 ± 1.45
Acute arterial occlusion 3.82 ± 1.46 4.13 ± 1.40 4.10 ± 1.30 4.53 ± 1.32 1.74 ± 1.31 1.69 ± 0.93
Acute myocardial infarction 3.14 ± 1.41 3.63 ± 1.62 3.93 ± 1.40 4.41 ± 1.37 1.36 ± 0.53 1.63 ± 1.04
Aortic aneurysm & dissection 5.19 ± 1.38 4.91 ± 1.53 5.40 ± 1.17 5.38 ± 1.21 1.55 ± 0.77 1.47 ± 1.05
Aortic stenosis 4.58 ± 1.35 4.94 ± 1.36 5.22 ± 1.15 5.19 ± 1.15 1.74 ± 0.99 2.00 ± 1.08
Asthma 5.14 ± 1.10 5.31 ± 1.13 5.02 ± 1.33 5.34 ± 1.34 2.05 ± 1.13 2.13 ± 0.98
Atherosclerosis 2.94 ± 1.38 3.39 ± 1.38 3.32 ± 1.29 3.84 ± 1.51 1.79 ± 0.81 1.94 ± 1.22
Chronic bronchitis 4.28 ± 1.48 4.66 ± 1.37 4.56 ± 1.34 4.78 ± 1.29 2.29 ± 1.18 2.03 ± 1.09
COPD 5.42 ± 0.80 5.34 ± 1.23 5.29 ± 1.10 5.34 ± 1.31 1.60 ± 0.94 1.94 ± 1.01
Pulmonary emphysema 5.42 ± 0.68 5.48 ± 1.02 5.29 ± 1.03 5.19 ± 1.42 2.64 ± 1.48 2.31 ± 1.23
Endocarditis 5.55 ± 0.97 5.52 ± 1.17 5.51 ± 1.31 5.66 ± 1.13 2.02 ± 1.39 1.91 ± 1.15
Tetralogy of Fallot 5.18 ± 1.33 5.01 ± 1.61 5.12 ± 1.74 5.38 ± 1.52 1.57 ± 1.35 1.41 ± 1.23
Congestive heart failure 4.59 ± 1.31 5.07 ± 1.34 4.76 ± 1.48 5.41 ± 1.24 1.64 ± 0.79 1.59 ± 1.10
Arterial hypertension 3.58 ± 1.42 4.56 ± 1.21 4.44 ± 1.48 4.69 ± 1.33 3.14 ± 1.49 2.34 ± 1.23
Influenza 2.87 ± 1.44 3.81 ± 1.40 4.27 ± 1.58 4.59 ± 1.48 2.48 ± 1.35 2.47 ± 1.22
Cardiomyopathy 5.73 ± 0.59 5.55 ± 0.93 5.50 ± 1.18 5.59 ± 1.16 2.64 ± 1.21 2.53 ± 1.11
Coronary artery disease 2.93 ± 1.53 3.23 ± 1.32 2.85 ± 1.30 3.63 ± 1.58 1.21 ± 0.47 1.31 ± 1.00
Pulmonary embolism 5.67 ± 0.61 5.68 ± 0.83 5.37 ± 0.99 5.22 ± 1.39 2.45 ± 1.15 2.41 ± 1.16
Mitral regurgitation 4.69 ± 1.22 4.99 ± 1.26 4.90 ± 1.15 5.28 ± 1.05 2.07 ± 0.89 2.25 ± 1.02
Myocarditis 4.96 ± 1.13 5.28 ± 1.03 5.15 ± 1.26 5.44 ± 1.16 2.38 ± 1.06 2.31 ± 0.93
Peripheral artery disease 4.95 ± 1.38 5.21 ± 1.28 4.83 ± 1.47 4.88 ± 1.54 2.17 ± 1.31 2.47 ± 1.61
Patent foramen ovale 5.45 ± 0.94 5.45 ± 1.06 5.46 ± 1.00 5.66 ± 1.13 2.90 ± 1.59 2.69 ± 1.53
Pleural effusion 5.32 ± 0.89 5.33 ± 1.02 5.07 ± 1.37 5.41 ± 1.16 2.69 ± 1.28 2.91 ± 1.25
Pneumonia 4.59 ± 1.43 4.85 ± 1.30 4.98 ± 1.29 5.31 ± 1.12 2.31 ± 1.35 2.41 ± 1.39
Pneumothorax 3.48 ± 1.36 3.99 ± 1.37 4.32 ± 1.46 4.59 ± 1.39 2.33 ± 1.20 2.19 ± 1.15
Pulmonary hypertension 4.49 ± 1.37 5.30 ± 1.01 5.10 ± 1.18 5.22 ± 1.39 3.36 ± 1.64 3.28 ± 1.33
Interstitial lung disease 5.60 ± 0.87 5.74 ± 0.70 5.69 ± 0.72 5.66 ± 1.04 3.98 ± 1.56 4.69 ± 1.31
Cardiac arrhythmias 4.25 ± 1.61 4.88 ± 1.48 5.19 ± 1.19 5.31 ± 1.38 2.05 ± 1.04 2.16 ± 1.44
Cardiogenic shock 4.55 ± 1.20 4.76 ± 1.23 4.76 ± 1.19 4.97 ± 1.20 3.00 ± 1.23 2.88 ± 1.19
Rheumatic fever 5.00 ± 1.13 5.51 ± 0.98 5.50 ± 0.99 5.50 ± 0.95 3.02 ± 1.41 2.91 ± 1.15
Smoking 5.63 ± 0.71 5.37 ± 1.34 5.43 ± 1.25 5.50 ± 1.30 1.86 ± 1.46 2.31 ± 1.66
Tuberculosis 5.40 ± 0.84 5.49 ± 0.88 5.14 ± 1.20 5.34 ± 1.21 3.45 ± 1.66 3.44 ± 1.50
  1. Data are presented as means ± standard deviations. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.