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Table 1 Residents’ characteristics

From: Medical residents’ perceptions of their competencies and training needs in health care management: an international comparison

Country   Netherlands Denmark Australia Canada
(n = 168) (n = 625) (n = 178) (n = 163)
Gender (Number(%)) Male 56 (33.3) 227 (36.3) 77 (43.3) 81 (49.7)
Female 112 (66.7) 398 (63.7) 101 (56.7) 82 (50.3)
Age (years) (Mean (SD))   30.3 (3.0) 34.2 (4.3) 27.2 (3.8) 29.2 (3.9)
Specialty (Number(%)) Anesthesiology 15 (8.9) 45 (7.2) 4 (2.2) 6 (3.7)
Clinical biochemistry 1 (0.6) 10 (1.6)   1 (0.6)
Clinical genetics 3 (1.8)    
Clinical microbiology   8 (1.3)   1 (0.6)
Clinical pharmacology   6 (1.0)   
Dermatology 6 (3.6) 11 (1.8) 1 (0.6) 2 (1.2)
ENT medicine 3 (1.8) 10 (1.6)   9 (5.5)
Emergency department 4 (2.4)   40 (22.5) 7 (4.3)
General medicine   87 (13.9) 22 (12.4) 34 (20.7)
Geriatrics   6 (1.0) 6 (3.4)  
Forensic medicine   3 (0.5)   
Internal medicine 24 (14.3) 166 (26.6) 16 (9.0) 39 (23.8)
Intensive care    5 (2.8) 1 (0.6)
Medical rehabilitation 1 (0.6)   4 (2.2)  
Neurology (surgery) 7 (4.2)   4 (2.2) 1 (0.6)
Nuclear medicine   36 (5.8)   
Obstetrics&Gynecology 31 (18.5) 8 (1.3) 6 (3.4) 6 (3.7)
Occupational medicine   26 (4.2) 1 (0.6)  
Ophthalmology 5 (3.0) 3 (0.5)   1 (0.6)
Orthopedic surgery 5 (3.0) 10 (1.6) 6 (3.4) 7 (4.3)
Pathology and cytology 5 (3.0) 37 (5.9)   3 (1.8)
Pediatrics 36 (21.4) 9 (1.4) 5 (2.8) 10 (6.1)
Psychiatry 2 (1.2) 23 (3.7) 8 (4.5) 11 (6.7)
Public health   50 (8.0)   1 (0.6)
Quality&Safety   6 (1.0) 2 (1.1)  
Radiology 8 (4.8)    6 (3.7)
Surgery 4 (2.4) 19 (3.0) 32 (18.0) 13 (7.9)
Urology 3 (1.3) 33 (5.3) 1 (0.6) 3 (1.8)
Not-stated* 5 (3.0) 13 (2.1) 15 (8.4) 1 (0.6)
Years since graduation (Mean (SD))   4.9 (2.8) 6.0 (4.2) 2.5 (2.5) 3.2 (2.7)
Previous management Training (Number(%)) Yes 26 (15.5) 545 (87.2) 26 (14.6) 22 (13.5)
No 142 (84.5) 80 (12.8) 152 (85.4) 141 (86.5)
Previous management experience (Number(%)) Yes 98 (58.3) 240 (38.4) 78 (43.8) 91 (55.8)
No 70 (41.7) 385 (61.6) 100 (56.2) 72 (44.2)
  1. *Not-stated: the question was not answered or the answer was incomprehensible.