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Table 3 Specific EBP content taught in the physical therapy curriculum (n = 28)

From: Teaching evidence based practice in physical therapy in a developing country: a national survey of Philippine schools

EBP content n (%)
Asking clinical question and searching for evidence   
 Formulating clinically relevant questions using PICO formata 16 57.1
 Different types of clinical questions to guide literature searchb 20 71.4
 Constructing focused search strategya 19 67.9
 Locating clinical evidence using electronic databasesa 19 67.9
Critically appraising evidence   
 Commonly used study designs and their major strength and limitationsa 21 75.0
 Assessing relevance of study design to clinical questiona 16 57.1
 Hierarchy or levels of evidencea 13 46.4
 Differences among narrative review, systematic review and meta-analysisa 16 57.1
 Difference between clinical and statistical significancea 15 53.6
 Interpreting results of statistical procedures such as t tests, chi-square testsa 20 71.4
 Interpreting results of statistics such as p-value, confidence intervala 17 60.7
 Understanding sensitivity and specificity, number needed to treat, odds ratioa 16 57.1
 Understanding intention to treat analysis, power calculationa 10 35.7
 Use of appraisal tools to assess validitya 12 42.9
 Ways in which study validity can be threateneda 16 57.1
 Difference between internal and external validitya 19 67.9
 Critical appraisal of systematic reviewsa 9 32.1
 Interpreting forest plots in systematic reviewsa 5 17.9
 Critical appraisal of studies about interventionb 14 50.0
 Critical appraisal of studies about diagnosisb 12 42.9
 Critical appraisal of studies about prognosisb 12 42.9
Integrating evidence and communicating results   
 Deciding on appropriate clinical decision considering patient’s needs and treatment preferencesa 18 64.3
 Communicating results of appraisal at level appropriate to individual patienta 13 46.4
  1. aConsidered appropriate for undergraduate-level education by majority (at least 50%) of participants who did not teach this content in undergraduate curriculum.
  2. bConsidered appropriate for postgraduate-level education by majority (at least 50%) of participants who did not teach this content in undergraduate curriculum.