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Table 1 Issues referred to eight times more frequently in FGDs with NPT and PT students

From: Preclinical students’ experiences in early clerkships after skills training partly offered in primary health care centers: a qualitative study from Indonesia

Major categories and sub-categories Issues Groups
Pre-clinical training in skills laboratory    
Strengths of training in skills laboratory Preparing for interpersonal communication 12* 4
Weaknesses of training in skills laboratory Differences between skills laboratory’s guidelines and procedures on site 15 23
Suggestions to improve training in skills laboratory Having more topics for practice including communication skills, pediatric examination, local language, clerkship preparation, etc. 38 25
Difficulties in first clerkships    
Difficulties with communication Difficulties related to interpersonal communication 12 0
Difficulties with physical examination Different guidelines from various supervisors 21 9
  Difficulty to recognize a pathological condition in patients 14 2
Difficulties with diagnostic and therapeutic skills Differences between manikins and patients 17 2
  Afraid of harming the patient 10 1
General difficulties Difficulties during adaptation period; responsibilities, equipments, procedures, etc 28 8
Insufficient supervision 24 14
Difficulties in collaboration with other health workers, health authorities, etc. 10 2
Low confidence in front of patients 15 3
Confused in front of patients 11 2
Nervous in front of patients 11 1
NPT students need to observe first before performing a clinical skill in first clerkships 15 2
  Difficulties with clinical reasoning ability 14 6
Students’ opinion on ECE for pre-clinical students    
Advantages Having clinical experiences earlier 0 50
Being aware of differences between skills laboratory and hospital reality 9 28
Learning to cooperate with other health workers 5 18
Practicing interpersonal communication 0 24
Improving confidence 16 26
Improving clinical reasoning 4 20
Providing opportunities to practice clinical skills 2 21
Motivating to practice clinical skills 5 18
  Learning that PHC is a comfortable environment for practice 0 10
Students’ suggestions for ECE Effectiveness depends on supervisor’s support 16 28
  Hospital attachments are needed to observe advanced clinical procedures 13 2
Students’ comments on comparing PT and NPT groups    
PT students feel better prepared than NPT students in first clerkships PT students demonstrate to be better prepared in their first clerkships 10 34
  1. *Cumulative frequency by which a similar issue was mentioned in FGDs.