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Table 4 Category-oriented likelihood ratios (LR) of signs and symptoms and laboratory results for organic diseases in patients with non-acute abdominal pain*

From: Conceptualization of category-oriented likelihood ratio: a useful tool for clinical diagnostic reasoning

Patient Characteristics Category-oriented LR(+) Category-oriented LR(-)
Male sex 1.41 0.78
Age > 30 years 1.12 0.64
Age > 60 years 1.47 0.9
30 < Age < 60 years 1.08 0.88
Symptoms   
History of blood in stool 1.5 0.89
Pain affecting sleep 1.3 0.77
No pain relief after defecation 1.1 0.72
No specific character to pain# 1.5 0.93
Weight loss > 1 kg in4 weeks 1.29 0.89
Laboratory tests   
White blood cell count > 10000 mm-3 2.28 0.9
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 20 mm hour' 2 0.92
Low hemoglobin level 1.78 0.87
  1. * Category-oriented LRs calculated using values of sensitivity and specificity derived from the study by Muris et al. [27]
  2. # No description of the pain as one or more of the following: burning, cutting, terrible, feeling of pressure, dull, boring