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Table 1 Diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in predicting urinary tract infection as measured by positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR)*

From: Conceptualization of category-oriented likelihood ratio: a useful tool for clinical diagnostic reasoning

Symptom/Sign Positive LR Negative LR
Dysuria 1.5 0.5
Frequency 1.8 0.6
Hematuria 2 0.9
Fever 1.6 0.9
Flank Pain 1.1 0.9
Lower Abdominal Pain 1.1 0.9
Vaginal Discharge 0.3 3.1
Vaginal Irritation 0.2 2.7
Back Pain 1.6 0.8
Self-diagnosis 4 0.1
Vaginal Discharge on Physical Examination 0.7 1.1
Costovertebral Angle Tenderness 1.7 0.9
Dipstick Urinalysis# 4.2 0.3
  1. * Values are derived from the study by Bent et al. [17]
  2. # A positive result was defined as leukocyte esterase positive or nitrite positive, a negative result was defined as both negative.