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Table 3 Comparison of scores obtained from the 'exposed' and 'non-exposed' groups and the percentage of students who achieved a ≥50% pass mark for each K-REC item

From: Development and psychometric testing of an instrument to evaluate cognitive skills of evidence based practice in student health professionals

Item no. and content Max. possible score Student scores
mean (SD)
pvalue (unpaired t test) Percentage of students passing (≥50%) pvalue
(z score, 2 tailed)
   'Exposed'
n = 24
'Non-exposed'
n = 76
  'Exposed'
n = 24
'Non-exposed' n = 76  
1 Research question (PICO) 2 1.5 (0.0) 1.1 (0.6) 0.0001 100 78 0.005
2 Sources of information 2 1.3 (0.3) 1.2 (0.5) 0.2729 100 79 0.006
3 Study design 1 1.0 (0.0) 0.6 (0.5) < 0.0001 100 55 < 0.0001
4 Search strategy (MeSH) 0.5 0.3 (0.3) 0.3 (0.3) 1 50 50 1.00
5 Search strategy (Boolean) 0.5 0.3 (0.3) 0.2 (0.2) 0.1693 54 38 0.08
6 Critical appraisal 1 0.8 (0.4) 0.1 (0.4) < 0.0001 79 14 < 0.0001
7 Critical appraisal 2 1.8 (0.4) 0.4 (0.7) < 0.0001 100 24 < 0.0001
8a Research evidence statistics 1 0.4 (0.5) 0.2 (0.4) 0.0453 42 21 0.018*
8b Research evidence statistics 1 0.4 (0.5) 0.1 (0.3) 0.0003 38 8 < 0.0001
9 Levels of evidence 1 0.7 (0.3) 0.2 (0.3) < 0.0001 79 26 < 0.0001
Mean total score 12 8.4 (1.4)
(range 6.5 - 11.0)
4.2 (2.0)
(range 1.0 - 11.5)
< 0.0001 100 21 0.005
  1. MeSH Medical subject headings, PICO (Participants, Intervention, Control or Comparator, Outcome)
  2. p values shown in bold type represent a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05)
  3. * not significant after Bonferroni correction