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Table 1 EBP evaluation instruments identified in an updated systematic search (post 2006) and comparison to the Fresno test

From: Development and psychometric testing of an instrument to evaluate cognitive skills of evidence based practice in student health professionals

Study Instrument type/name No. of knowledge items Psychometric properties EBP outcomes EBP content assessed EBP steps
   (question type)    Research question Search strategy Research design Critical appraisal Statistics Levels of evidence  
Ramos et al 2003[9] Fresno test 12 (short answer/essay) Inter-rater reliability, IC, content, discriminative and responsive validity K A x x x x x   1,2,3,4
Caspi et al 2006 [12] online survey 10 (m/c) IC, content validity KA, KSR, A      x   3
Krueger 2006 [13] exam not reported (m/c) Content and discriminative validity KA    x x x x 3
Novack et al 2006 [14] survey not reported (m/c) Content and discriminative validity KA    x   x   3
Meyer et al 2007 [15] not reported 13 (not reported) Inter-rater reliability, content and responsive validity KA    x   x   3
Shuval et al 2007 [16] written assignment + online exam not reported (short answer/essay) Inter-rater reliability, content validity KA, A, U, B x x      1,2
Siriwardena et al 2007 [17] Manchester short EBM survey 30 (m/c) IC, content and discriminative validity KA, A   x   x    2, 3
Davis et al 2008 [18] survey 5 (m/c, short answer) IC, content, discriminative and responsive validity KA, A not reported  
Ahmadi-Abhari et al 2008 [19] survey 6 (m/c) IC, content and discriminative validity KA, A not reported 3
McCluskey & Bishop 2009 [20] Adapted Fresno test of competence in EBP 7 (short answer/essay) Inter-rater reliability, IC and responsive validity KA x x x x x   1,2,3
Tilson 2010 [21] Modified Fresno Test 13 (short answer/essay) Inter- and intra-rater reliability, IC, content and discriminative validity KA x x x x x   1,2,3, ?4
  1. Bold type indicates the original Fresno test [9], 'x' research evidence competency assessed, ? questionable inclusion.
  2. A Attitudes, B Barriers, IC Internal consistency, KA actual knowledge, KSR self-reported knowledge, m/c multiple choice, P Perceptions, T/F true/false, U Use.