-Clinical reasoning development is linked to a stepwise approach to case solving.|
-Input on factual and core knowledge is welcome as part of the VP "package", especially as feedback.
-Holistic view of the patient and closure sense.
-Directly to the real patients, especially when the cases used in teaching were created from real life clinical records.|
-To other types of exam.
|Retention||Learning with VP enhances retention.|
-Recognizing and correcting mistakes in a safe environment is crucial for successful learning.|
- VP mistakes are less prone to be repeated in clinical practice.
-VPS should be used in all major clinical specialties.|
-Topics: frequent diseases and their complications; topics not included in the study plan and in the clinical rotations; diseases that might be easily missed during a short clinical rotation (due to seasonality or to being endemic in a different geographic area).
-Institutional level: instruction becomes uniform across rotations sites.|
-Individual level: limiting the availability of the system externally regulates learning.
-...and intrinsically better evaluation tool.|
-VPS should not be the only assessment form used in a course. Implicit: VPS should be used for course assessment only.
-Allow increased retrieval of information in comparison with regular examinations.
|Motivation||VPS can increase motivation for learning.|
-Assessment and feedback on assessment are perceived as important learning tools.|
-VP assessment should be relevant for future clinical practice as a general practitioner.
-Open questions make students think.|
-Students favour open questions even if the grades lower.
|Authenticity||Design and content||
-Should reflect the real clinical practice and offer localized menu/content choices.|
-Might consider including actual costs.
-Artificial menus/content options are misleading.
|Localization of the socio-cultural context||Necessary for applications developed in one country and implemented in another.|
|Realism and virtuality||
-Real life records thought to make better patient cases than fictitious scenarios.|
-The knowledge derived from them is directly transferable to real patients.
-Strong emphasis on patient photo.
-Cases created from real life patient records no longer perceived as "virtual".
|Feedback||Actual patient evolution and effect of treatment are highly desirable features of feedback, adding to realism.|
|Implementation||Number of cases||More than one case per topic can be necessary for common diseases which are often complicated/have co-morbidities at presentation. Min. 5-6 cases of tropical diseases.|
|Access and availability||The availability of the application should be restricted in time.|
|VP exchange||Tropical diseases cases should be exchanged with other HEIs.|