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Table 2 Characteristics of 11 mentoring-related studies for medical students (listed by year of publication)

From: Mentoring programs for medical students - a review of the PubMed literature 2000 - 2008

Author
Year Country
Aim of the Article Results Conclusion
Keyser et al. [25]
2008 USA
Overview:
Key domains of research mentorship
1. Mentor selection criteria:
     -experience and contacts in the mentee's area of research interest
2. Incentives for motivating faculty mentors:
    - institutional recognition, element for career promotion, awards and time
Research mentorship is a vital part of academic medical education. By establishing mentoring programs, institutions enhance the professional development of future researchers
   3. Factors facilitating the mentor-mentee relationship:  
      - formal matching program, written guidelines for mentors and mentees  
   4. Mentor responsibilities for strengthening the mentee's research abilities:  
      - to provide useful feedback, to supervise the mentees' research  
   5. Mentoring helps mentee  
      - to build a professional network, to apply successfully for grants, to publish manuscripts, to shape personal performance  
   6. Mentor's benefits:  
      - personal satisfaction, increased professional recognition  
Taherian et al. [26]
2008 UK
Overview:
Advantages and disadvantages of mentoring
Advantages:
    - for mentees: shaping of personality, sharing experiences, networking
    - for mentors: satisfaction, sharing experiences, learning with juniors
Mentoring is a relationship rather than just a set of activities. It is a developmental process for both parties and, if well conducted, represents an enormous benefit
      - for the organization: improvements in doctors' training and satisfaction  
   Disadvantages of mentoring:  
      - conflict of interests between the mentoring and supervising role of the mentor  
      - patronizing attitude of mentors  
      - mentor proposing solutions instead of enabling mentees to find their own way  
Buddeberg-Fischer [1]
2006 Switzerland
Systematic review:
Formal mentoring programs for medical students
Types of structured mentoring programs:
   - peer, group and individual mentoring
Short- and long-term goals of mentoring programs:
    - to stimulate students' interest in a certain medical specialty
    - training and cooperation in research
    - to provide career counseling, networking
Formal mentoring programs are of great importance in terms of career support and promotion of junior physicians
In the interests of clearly identifying the advantages and disadvantages of formal mentoring, there is a need for a better evaluation
   Short- and long-term effects:  
      - improvement in mentee's professional development and social skills  
      - increased desire to pursue a scientific career  
Buddeberg-Fischer [1]
2006 Switzerland
Systematic review:
Formal mentoring programs for medical students
Types of structured mentoring programs:    
    - improvement in mentee's professional development and social skills
    - increased desire to pursue a scientific career
Formal mentoring programs are of great importance in terms of career support and promotion of junior physicians
In the interests of clearly identifying the advantages and disadvantages of formal mentoring, there is a need for a better evaluation
Sambunjak et al. [27]
2006 Croatia and USA
Systematic review:
Mentoring in academic medicine: evidence on the prevalence of mentorship and its relationship to career development
Three papers [31, 34, 35] (two programs) refer to mentoring for medical students:
    - prevalence of mentorship in academic and health institutions reported in one paper: 36% of 3rd- and 4th-year medical students
    - impact of mentorship on personal development, career guidance, specialty and academic career choice, research productivity and success: reported by 60 to 98% of the mentees
Weak evidence to support the perception that mentoring is important for career success
Hauer et al. [28]
2005 USA
Survey: Focus groups of 4th-year students with and without mentors
Expectations towards mentors, perceived barriers to finding a mentor and suggestions for improving mentoring
Expectations towards a mentor:
    - devoted to develop a mentoring relationship, friendship and personalized guidance
    - impact on career development
Barriers to finding a mentor:
    - faculty members seem to be busy, students were put off making an appointment
    - mentees' career indecision
    - courses of short duration making it difficult to establish a mentoring relationship
Suggestions for enhancement of mentoring:
    - foster the awareness of the importance of mentorship
Medical students have a desire for supportive, personal and trusting relationships with faculty members, independent of specialty choice
Rose et al. [29]
2005 USA
Overview:
Informal mentoring between faculty and medical student
Advice on how to be an effective mentor
90% - 95% of students rate mentoring as important; one-third of students report having a mentor
Requirements for being an effective mentor:    
- to be available, to invest in the mentee's personal and professional development, to share experiences, to review the student's progress
Faculty members should be receptive to students' requests for mentoring and provide support when the mentee-mentor-relationship seems appropriate
   Requirements for being a successful mentee:
    - follow through, accept challenge, set agendas, accept critique
 
Cochran et al. [30]
2004 USA
Survey:
To identify desirable qualities for surgical role models
Frequency of surgeon mentors:
    -84% of 3rd-year medical students have at least one surgeon mentor
Types of surgeon mentors:
    -Attending surgeons (role of a teacher);
    -resident surgeons (role of a colleague)
Role models play a substantial part in the selection of a specialty
Garmel et al. [3]
2004 USA
Overview:
Requirements for successful mentoring and possible pitfalls
Mentor's qualities and responsibilities:
    - is non-judgmental and accepts of personal differences
    - commits time and energy on a regular and ongoing basis
    - assists in the mentee's identity development
    - gives honest feedback in a constructive and caring manner
Mentoring is beneficial for both mentees and mentors
Students' experience of mentoring in students may encourage them to be mentors themselves in the future
   Benefits for the mentor:  
      - rekindled passion and excitement about the specialty  
   Topics for mentoring:  
   - career choice
- application process for residency
- academic advancement
- career satisfaction
- work-life-balance
 
   Pitfalls:  
   - inappropriate expectations
- breaching confidentiality
 
Aagard et al. [31]
2003 USA
Survey:
Prevalence and characteristics of informal mentoring relationships among 3rd- and 4th-year medical students
Prevalence:
    - 26% of 3rd-year and 45% of 4th-year students have mentors
    - no gender difference in the frequency of mentoring relationships
Development of mentoring relationship:
Advisors should refer students to potential mentors in the student's field of interest early in medical school
      - 28% during inpatient clerkships  
      - 19% through research activities  
      - 23% by actively seeking on the basis of similar interests  
   Mentoring effects:  
   - Choosing more often a research or an academic career  
   - higher overall satisfaction in medical school  
Hill et al. [32]
2002 USA
Personal perception of mentoring Mentor's responsibility:
- Supporting, counseling, sharing information, being available
Mentorship is a source of fulfillment for the mentor
   Mentee's responsibility:
- Seeking the mentor's advice, recognizing limitations of a mentorship
The mentee acquires new perspectives and is led towards his/her goal
Mahayosnand [33]
2000 USA
Short report on a Public Health E-Mentoring program - Web-based application stating matching criteria
- Matching on a central, national database all the year round
- Providing essential mentoring literature on the Web site
- Over 50% of communications conducted via e-mail
Time- and cost-efficient, but some funding necessary