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Table 1 Characteristics of 14 mentoring programs for medical students (listed by year of publication)

From: Mentoring programs for medical students - a review of the PubMed literature 2000 - 2008

Year Country
Goal of mentoring program Mentoring model Participants Program evaluation Effects of the program
Coates et al. [5]
2008 USA
Mentoring as part of a 4th-year College program One-to-one and group mentoring Mentees: 4th-year medical students
Mentors: Faculty members of the respective college
Pre-/post telephone interviews with students enrolled in the College program and a random sample of a control group Higher level of satisfaction on the part of the College intervention group with their access to career mentoring, elective advising for scheduling the 4th--year and for the residency application process
High level of appreciation of on-going contact with peers and faculty, longitudinal clinical experience and research opportunities
Dorrance et al. [12]
2008 USA
Increasing students' interest in internal medicine One-to-one mentoring Mentees: 1st-and 2nd-year medical students
Mentors: Internal medicine faculty members
Quantitative (pre-/pos- program) and qualitative (post program) data collection Greater interest in internal medicine as a career; career decisions by counseling; higher scholar productivity measured by presentations, publications and research awards
Kanter et al. [13]
2007 USA
Improving students' experiences in medical humanities; supporting students' research projects One-to-one mentoring Mentees: 3rd- and 4th-year medical students
Mentors: Senior physicians
Questionnaire (quantitative and qualitative data from mentees and mentors) Increased interest in a career as physician-scientist
Improved research skills
Kalet et al. [14]
2007 USA
Mentoring as part of an online Professional Development Portfolio (PDP): Supporting professional growth and development; rewarding achievements outside required curriculum One-to-one and group mentoring Mentees: 1st- up to 4th-year medical students
Mentors: Faculty members
Web-based survey tool for the acquisition of quantitative and qualitative data, independent of the PDP Enrolled students assessed PDP as useful for:
tracking own professional development
increasing awareness of professional responsibilities
preparing for the mentoring sessions
Zink et al. [15]
2007 USA
Providing students with career information, counseling on career decisions and advising on the residency match process One-to-one mentoring Mentees: A cohort of medical students over four years
Mentors: Non-physician class counselors, assistant dean, faculty career advisors
Questionnaire (quantitative data) Career decisions by counseling
Broader insight into different medical fields
Macaulay et al. [16]
2007 USA
Advising, guiding and supporting students in their academic and professional development and extracurricular activities Group mentoring: One mentor for 30 students
Structured and informal sessions
Mentees: 1st- up to 4th-year medical students
Mentors: Senior physicians (faculty members), part-time job
Online questionnaire survey (quantitative data) Career decisions by counseling
Improved networking
Increased social support
Reduced stress experience
Kosoko-Lasaki et al. [17]
2006 USA
To provide career counseling and group support for underrepresented medical students Group- and one-to-one mentoring Mentees, Mentors: younger students mentored by advanced students; advanced students mentored by postgraduate students and faculty members Questionnaire survey (quantitative data) Improved skills for coping with the demands of higher education
Increased social support
Facilitated choice of residency program
Fostered professional development
Zier et al. [18]
2006 USA
To increase interest in an academic career by providing opportunities to work on research programs One-to-one mentoring Mentees: 1st- to 4th-year medical students
Mentors: Physicians from clinical and science departments
Questionnaire survey (quantitative data) Increased research skills
Increased number of research papers
Higher number of postgraduates obtain positions with a research component
Goldstein et al. [19]
2005 USA
Continuous monitoring of the student's progress in medical school Small group and one-to-one mentoring Mentees: A cohort of medical students over four years
Mentors: Senior physicians (faculty members)
Results of Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (CEX) and of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE); students' Portfolio of written work Improved bedside skills
Improved learning skills
Evolved ability to monitor the own developmental progress
Coates et al. [20]
2004 USA
Providing students with specialty-specific (Emergency Medicine, EM) career guidance: advice for scheduling their senior year, information about residency programs
Role modeling for those embarking on a career path in EM
Two-tier virtual advisor program:
First tier: general answers to 14 frequently asked questions (on the Web site)
Second tier: Linking students to individual mentors
Mentees: Medical students interested in EM
Mentors: Faculty members with experience in medical education, in advising students and with involvement in a EM residency program
Qualitative email-survey of mentees and mentors Improved career counseling for a broad range of medical students interested in EM
Although written guidelines are given, formal training of mentors is required
Scheckler et al. [21]
2004 USA
Providing an opportunity for continuous professional and personal advice and providing a role model Group and one-to-one mentoring Mentees: 1st- up to 4th-year medical students
Mentors: Experienced physicians (faculty members)
No systematic evaluation, collection of qualitative statements Broader educational experience
Feeling of being psychologically supported
Increased awareness of possibilities for integration of professional and extraprofessional concerns
Kalet et al. [22]
2002 USA
Fostering the professional development of the students Small group mentoring Mentees: 1st- and 2nd-year medical students
Mentors: Medical faculty members
Questionnaire survey (quantitative data), focus groups (qualitative data) Improved professional behavior
Development of a professional identity
Murr et al. [23]
2002 USA
Fostering the professional and personal growth and well-being of students Small group- and one-to-one mentoring Mentees: 1st- up to 4th-year medical students
Mentors: Senior physicians
No systematic evaluation Increased social support
Career decisions based on counseling
Increased networking
Tekian et al. [24]
2001 USA
To reduce the number of academic difficulties experienced by under-represented medical minority students One-to-one mentoring Mentees: Minority medical students over four years
Mentors: Physicians, teachers, advisors, medical students' families, clergy
Personal interviews Physician mentor: improved medical school performance
Other mentors: non-specific personal and professional benefits