Skip to main content


Table 1 Characteristics of 14 mentoring programs for medical students (listed by year of publication)

From: Mentoring programs for medical students - a review of the PubMed literature 2000 - 2008

Author Year Country Goal of mentoring program Mentoring model Participants Program evaluation Effects of the program
Coates et al. [5] 2008 USA Mentoring as part of a 4th-year College program One-to-one and group mentoring Mentees: 4th-year medical students Mentors: Faculty members of the respective college Pre-/post telephone interviews with students enrolled in the College program and a random sample of a control group Higher level of satisfaction on the part of the College intervention group with their access to career mentoring, elective advising for scheduling the 4th--year and for the residency application process High level of appreciation of on-going contact with peers and faculty, longitudinal clinical experience and research opportunities
Dorrance et al. [12] 2008 USA Increasing students' interest in internal medicine One-to-one mentoring Mentees: 1st-and 2nd-year medical students Mentors: Internal medicine faculty members Quantitative (pre-/pos- program) and qualitative (post program) data collection Greater interest in internal medicine as a career; career decisions by counseling; higher scholar productivity measured by presentations, publications and research awards
Kanter et al. [13] 2007 USA Improving students' experiences in medical humanities; supporting students' research projects One-to-one mentoring Mentees: 3rd- and 4th-year medical students Mentors: Senior physicians Questionnaire (quantitative and qualitative data from mentees and mentors) Increased interest in a career as physician-scientist Improved research skills
Kalet et al. [14] 2007 USA Mentoring as part of an online Professional Development Portfolio (PDP): Supporting professional growth and development; rewarding achievements outside required curriculum One-to-one and group mentoring Mentees: 1st- up to 4th-year medical students Mentors: Faculty members Web-based survey tool for the acquisition of quantitative and qualitative data, independent of the PDP Enrolled students assessed PDP as useful for: tracking own professional development increasing awareness of professional responsibilities preparing for the mentoring sessions
Zink et al. [15] 2007 USA Providing students with career information, counseling on career decisions and advising on the residency match process One-to-one mentoring Mentees: A cohort of medical students over four years Mentors: Non-physician class counselors, assistant dean, faculty career advisors Questionnaire (quantitative data) Career decisions by counseling Broader insight into different medical fields
Macaulay et al. [16] 2007 USA Advising, guiding and supporting students in their academic and professional development and extracurricular activities Group mentoring: One mentor for 30 students Structured and informal sessions Mentees: 1st- up to 4th-year medical students Mentors: Senior physicians (faculty members), part-time job Online questionnaire survey (quantitative data) Career decisions by counseling Improved networking Increased social support Reduced stress experience
Kosoko-Lasaki et al. [17] 2006 USA To provide career counseling and group support for underrepresented medical students Group- and one-to-one mentoring Mentees, Mentors: younger students mentored by advanced students; advanced students mentored by postgraduate students and faculty members Questionnaire survey (quantitative data) Improved skills for coping with the demands of higher education Increased social support Facilitated choice of residency program Fostered professional development
Zier et al. [18] 2006 USA To increase interest in an academic career by providing opportunities to work on research programs One-to-one mentoring Mentees: 1st- to 4th-year medical students Mentors: Physicians from clinical and science departments Questionnaire survey (quantitative data) Increased research skills Increased number of research papers Higher number of postgraduates obtain positions with a research component
Goldstein et al. [19] 2005 USA Continuous monitoring of the student's progress in medical school Small group and one-to-one mentoring Mentees: A cohort of medical students over four years Mentors: Senior physicians (faculty members) Results of Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (CEX) and of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE); students' Portfolio of written work Improved bedside skills Improved learning skills Evolved ability to monitor the own developmental progress
Coates et al. [20] 2004 USA Providing students with specialty-specific (Emergency Medicine, EM) career guidance: advice for scheduling their senior year, information about residency programs Role modeling for those embarking on a career path in EM Two-tier virtual advisor program: First tier: general answers to 14 frequently asked questions (on the Web site) Second tier: Linking students to individual mentors Mentees: Medical students interested in EM Mentors: Faculty members with experience in medical education, in advising students and with involvement in a EM residency program Qualitative email-survey of mentees and mentors Improved career counseling for a broad range of medical students interested in EM Although written guidelines are given, formal training of mentors is required
Scheckler et al. [21] 2004 USA Providing an opportunity for continuous professional and personal advice and providing a role model Group and one-to-one mentoring Mentees: 1st- up to 4th-year medical students Mentors: Experienced physicians (faculty members) No systematic evaluation, collection of qualitative statements Broader educational experience Feeling of being psychologically supported Increased awareness of possibilities for integration of professional and extraprofessional concerns
Kalet et al. [22] 2002 USA Fostering the professional development of the students Small group mentoring Mentees: 1st- and 2nd-year medical students Mentors: Medical faculty members Questionnaire survey (quantitative data), focus groups (qualitative data) Improved professional behavior Development of a professional identity
Murr et al. [23] 2002 USA Fostering the professional and personal growth and well-being of students Small group- and one-to-one mentoring Mentees: 1st- up to 4th-year medical students Mentors: Senior physicians No systematic evaluation Increased social support Career decisions based on counseling Increased networking
Tekian et al. [24] 2001 USA To reduce the number of academic difficulties experienced by under-represented medical minority students One-to-one mentoring Mentees: Minority medical students over four years Mentors: Physicians, teachers, advisors, medical students' families, clergy Personal interviews Physician mentor: improved medical school performance Other mentors: non-specific personal and professional benefits